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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 14

1. Convolvulaceae Jussieu

Morning Glory Family

Daniel F. Austin†

Annuals, perennials, subshrubs, shrubs, vines, or lianas [trees], some with milky sap; Cuscuta parasitic, achlorophyllous. Stems decumbent, erect, procumbent, repent, trailing, or twining-climbing. Leaves alternate, usually simple, sometimes compound; stipules absent; petiole present or absent; blade margins entire, toothed, or lobed. Inflorescences axillary, ± cymose or flowers solitary; bracteate or not; bracteolate or not. Flowers bisexual [unisexual], actinomorphic or weakly zygomorphic; calyx persistent, sepals 5, distinct or proximally connate, equal or unequal; corolla blue, cream, green, lavender, maroon, pink, purple, rose, violet, white, or yellow, campanulate, funnelform, rotate, salverform, tubular, or urceolate, limb (3–)5-lobed or -toothed or entire, induplicate, sometimes also convolute, in bud; nectary annular or cup-shaped, sometimes 5-lobed or absent; stamens (3–)5, distinct, filaments inserted on corolla tube, anthers 2-celled, linear or oblong, dehiscent by slits; ovary superior, 1–4(–6)-locular, placentation basal or basal-axile, ovules 1–6 per locule, anatropous, bitegmic, crassi- or tenuinucellate; styles 1 or 2; stigmas 1 or 2, capitate, globose, peltate, or 2(–4)-lobed. Fruits usually capsular, sometimes berrylike (nutlike), dehiscent or indehiscent. Seeds 1–4(–6), black, brown, green, or yellow, ellipsoid, globose, obcompressed, or pyramidal, glabrous or hairy; endosperm absent or scant, cartilaginous; embryo straight, cotyledons usually folded, rarely absent.

Genera 56, species 1600–1700 (18 genera, 167 species in the flora): nearly worldwide.

A traditional circumscription of Convolvulaceae, including Cuscuta and Dichondra, is followed here. Cuscuta is sometimes treated as a distinct family, Cuscutaceae Dumortier, and, less commonly, Dichondra has been treated in a distinct family, Dichondraceae Dumortier (A. Cronquist 1981; A. B. Rendle 1959).

In addition to hundreds of horticultural cultivars, economically important members of Convolvulaceae include Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato) and species of Calystegia that are agricultural weeds. Some species of Convolvulaceae are sources of hallucinogens and medicines, especially purgatives.

SELECTED REFERENCE Stefanović, S. et al. 2003. Classification of Convolvulaceae: A phylogenetic approach. Syst. Bot. 28: 791–806.

1 Plants parasitic (lacking chlorophyll)   1 Cuscuta, p. 271
+ Plants not parasitic (autotrophic).   (2)
2 (1) Stems usually ascending, creeping, decumbent, erect, procumbent, prostrate, or trailing, seldom twining-climbing; leaves: larger blades 10–30(–100) mm; styles usually 2 (1 in Convolvulus).   (3)
+ Stems usually twining-climbing, sometimes repent or trailing, rarely almost absent, ascending, decumbent, erect, or procumbent; leaves: larger blades (10–)40–270 mm; styles 1.   (9)
3 (2) Stigmas or stigma lobes cylindric, linear, filiform, subclavate, subulate, or spatulate.   (4)
+ Stigmas capitate, globose, or peltate.   (5)
4 (3) Leaves sessile or subsessile; styles 2, stigma lobes 4, filiform to subclavate   2 Evolvulus, p. 303
+ Leaves usually petiolate, rarely sessile; styles 1, stigma lobes 2, cylindric, linear, or spatulate   14 Convolvulus (in part), p. 336
5 (3) Styles: insertion ± basal; fruits subglobose to ± compressed, ± incised and 2-lobed, indehiscent or shattering irregularly   3 Dichondra, p. 306
+ Styles: insertion not ± basal; fruits conic, fusiform, globose, oblong-ovoid, or ovoid, dehiscence valvate.   (6)
6 (5) Leaf blades 1–14 mm.   (7)
+ Leaf blades (1–)10–60(–100).   (8)
7 (6) Stems decumbent to erect, seldom, if ever, mat-forming; corollas salverform, white, 5–7 mm   4 Cressa, p. 308
+ Stems decumbent, erect, prostrate, or trailing, sometimes mat-forming; corollas ± campanulate, greenish yellow to yellow, 3–4 mm   5 Petrogenia, p. 310
8 (6) Sepals 9–28 mm; corollas blue, blue-purple, or white with blue limb, 35–85 mm   6 Bonamia, p. 310
+ Sepals 4–11 mm; corollas usually white, sometimes lavender, maroon, pink, purple, or red, 8–25 mm   7 Stylisma, p. 311
9 (2) Fruits indehiscent.   (10)
+ Fruits dehiscent.   (13)
10 (9) Sepals lanceolate-linear, 1–2 mm; corollas white, to 8 mm   8 Poranopsis, p. 314
+ Sepals elliptic, oblong, or ovate to orbiculate, 7–20 mm; corollas lavender, purple, purplish red, red, white, or yellow, 25–95 mm.   (11)
11 (10) Leaf blade abaxial surfaces black-glandular-punctate; fruits dry, 25–30 mm   9 Stictocardia, p. 315
+ Leaf blade abaxial surfaces glabrous, glabrate, or white-hairy; fruits fleshy or dry, 10–15 mm.   (12)
12 (11) Leaf blades 180–270 mm; sepals ovate, 15–20 mm; corollas lavender, 60–65 mm; fruits berrylike, fleshy   10 Argyreia, p. 316
+ Leaf blades 40–100 mm; sepals oblong, 7–12 mm; corollas proximally purplish, distally ± white with greenish bands, 25–40 mm; fruits capsular or nutlike, dry   11 Turbina, p. 317
13 (9) Stigmas or stigma lobes cylindric, elliptic, linear, oblong, reniform, spatulate, or subulate.   (14)
+ Stigmas or stigma lobes capitate or globose.   (16)
14 (13) Stems hairy, hairs usually branched, glandular, and/or stellate, sometimes simple   12 Jacquemontia, p. 317
+ Stems glabrous or hairy, hairs not branched, glandular, or stellate.   (15)
15 (14) Sepals (5–)8–15(–25) mm; ovary 1-locular; stigma lobes linear to oblong, apices blunt   13 Calystegia, p. 321
+ Sepals 3–12 mm; ovary 2-locular; stigma lobes cylindric to spatulate, apices acute.   14 Convolvulus (in part), p. 336
16 (13) Fruit dehiscence circumscissile   15 Operculina, p. 338
+ Fruit dehiscence irregular or valvate.   (17)
17 (16) Anthers twisted after dehiscence; pollen usually 3–9-colpate, rarely aggrecolpate, not echinate   16 Merremia, p. 339
+ Anthers straight after dehiscence; pollen rugate and not echinate (Aniseia) or pantoporate and echinate (Ipomoea).   (18)
18 (17) Sepals notably accrescent in fruit, outer 3 notably longer than inner 2; corolla white, campanulate, 25–30 mm   17 Aniseia, p. 342
+ Sepals seldom notably accrescent in fruit, outer 3 not notably longer than inner 2; corolla usually blue, lavender, pink, purple, red, violet, or white, sometimes orange, red and yel­low, or red-orange, usually funnelform, sometimes campanulate or salverform, (6–)20–80(–150+) mm   18 Ipomoea, p. 342

  • List of lower taxa


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