18. Tamaricaceae Link
Tamarisk Family Tamarisk Family
John F. Gaskin
Shrubs or trees [subshrubs], usually halophytes, rheophytes, or xerophytes. Leaves alternate, scalelike [subulate], small; stipules absent. Inflorescences simple or compound racemes usually equal or more in number to petals, distinct [connate basally or fasciculate], often attached to fleshy nectar disc; pistil (2–)3–4(–5)-carpellate; ovary 1-locular, sometimes almost plurilocular, ovules 2+ per placenta, anatropous, bitegmic; placentation parietal, basal, or parietal-basal; styles [2–]3–4[–5] [absent, stigmas sessile]. Fruits capsular, dehiscence loculicidal. Seeds comose at one end [hairy overall]; embryo straight; endosperm absent [scanty, starchy]; thin perisperm often present.
Genera 4, species ca. 78 (1 genus, 8 species in the flora): introduced; Europe, Asia, Africa, especially from Mediterranean to c Asia.
Tamaricaceae have traditionally been placed in the Violales, but recent analyses of molecular sequence data place the family within the Caryophyllales of the core eudicots. Frankeniaceae has retained its place as sister family to Tamaricaceae, sharing similarities in many characters, including secondary chemistry and salt gland structure.
SELECTED REFERENCES Cheng, Z. M., Pan H. X., and Yin L. K. 2000. Study on the phytochemistry taxonomy of Tamarix L. and Myricaria Desv. Acta Bot. Boreal.-Occid. Sin. 20: 275–282. Crins, W. J. 1989. The Tamaricaceae of the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 70: 403–425. Gaskin, J. F. et al. 2004. A systematic overview of Frankeniaceae and Tamaricaceae from nuclear rDNA and plastid sequence data. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 91: 401–409. Gupta, A. K. and Y. S. Murty. 1987. Floral anatomy in Tamaricaceae. J. Indian Bot. Soc. 66: 275–282. Niedenzu, F. 1925. Tamaricaceae. In: H. G. A. Engler et al., eds. 1924+. Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2. 26+ vols. Leipzig and Berlin. Vol. 21, pp. 282–289. Qaiser, M. 1987. Studies in the seed morphology of the family Tamaricaceae from Pakistan. Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 94: 469–484. Zhang, D. Y. et al. 2000. Systematic studies on some questions of Tamaricaceae based on ITS sequence. Acta Bot. Boreal.-Occident. Sin. 20: 421–431. Zhang, Y. M., Pan B. R., and Yin L. K. 1998. Seed morphology of Tamaricaceae in China arid areas and its systematic evolution. J. Pl. Resources Environm. 7(2): 22–27.