2. Hypolepis Bernhardi, Neues J. Bot. 1(2): 34. 1806.
Bramble ferns [Greek hypo, below, and lepis, scale, in reference to position of sori under the revolute leaf margin]
Clifton E. Nauman
Plants terrestrial, often forming colonies. Stems subterranean, long-creeping; hairs reddish. Leaves scattered, arching, deltate, 45--160 cm [to 7 m]. Petiole glabrescent or pubescent, often with prickles, sometimes with stem buds near base; vascular bundles more than 3, forming O-shaped pattern in cross section. Blade 1--4-pinnate; rachises with prickles; nectaries absent. Segments pinnatifid, ultimate segments oblong, margins lobed. Veins free, simple or pinnately branched. Sori ± marginal at vein tips, discrete, mostly round, protected by revolute blade tooth, rarely inframarginal and unprotected. Spores ellipsoid, monolete, tuberculate or papillate. x = 26, 29.
Species ca. 45 (1 in the flora): worldwide in tropical regions.
Brownsey, P. J. 1983. Polyploidy and aneuploidy in Hypolepis and the evolution of the Dennstaedtiales. Amer. Fern J. 73: 97--108.