1. Herpetineuron toccoae (Sullivant & Lesquereux) Cardot, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 19(2): 127. 1905.
Anomodon toccoae Sullivant & Lesquereux in W. S. Sullivant, Musc. Hepat. U.S., 240. 1856
Stems (1-)2-4 cm, (0.2-)0.9-1.3 mm thick, terete-foliate when dry, branching pattern often of several orders of successive branching, in stepwise fashion. Branch leaves involute in tubular fashion when dry, 1.8-2.8 × 0.5-1.2 mm; base broadly decurrent; marginal teeth of 1-several cells; costa sinuous in distal 1/3. Perichaetia on youngest branches, leaves 1.5-2.2 mm, apex subulate, subula flexuose, often somewhat crispate, laminal cells smooth throughout. [Capsule urn (1.7-)2-2.8 mm; stomata at base; annulus well differentiated; exostome teeth 0.5 mm; endostome segments 0.2-0.3 mm. Spores densely papillose].
Tree bases, rock, temperate deciduous forests; m oderate elevations; Ala., Ariz., Ark., Fla., Ga., Ill., Ky., La., Miss., N.C., Okla., S.C., Tenn., Tex.; Mexico; West Indies (Dominican Republic); Central America (El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua); South America (e Brazil); e, se Asia; w, s Africa (South Africa, Tanzania); Pacific Islands (New Caledonia, Papua New Guinea).
No sporophytes have been found in the flora area; the description is based on sporophytes from China and Japan.