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FNA | Family List | FNA Vol. 6 | Malvaceae

13a. Malvaceae Jussieu subfam. Sterculioideae Burnett, Outlines Bot. 821, 1119. 1835. (as Sterculidae).

Margaret M. Hanes

Trees [shrubs]. Leaf blades unlobed or lobed, ultimate margins entire or serrate. Inflorescences axillary or terminal, paniculate [racemose]. Flowers usually functionally unisexual, rarely bisexual; epicalyx absent; sepals persistent or late-deciduous, (4–)5(–8), connate, petaloid, nectaries usually at base on adaxial surface, sometimes absent; petals absent; androgynophore present; stamens [4–]10–30, basally connate; anthers 2-thecate; staminodes absent; gynoecium apocarpous. Fruits follicles [nuts]. Seeds 1–22[–144], glabrous or hairy.

Genera ca. 12, species ca. 400 (2 genera, 2 species in the flora): introduced; Asia, Pacific Islands, Australia; pantropical.

Genera in Sterculioideae historically have been recognized as a morphological group (H. W. Schott and S. L. Endlicher 1832; A. L. Takhtajan 1997; P. Wilkie et al. 2006) due to the presence of mostly unisexual flowers with androgynophores and without petals. Individually, these elements are found throughout Malvaceae; their combination is exclusive to Sterculioideae. Generic relationships within Sterculioideae are complicated. Firmiana is closely related to Hildegardia Schott & Endlicher and, as currently circumscribed, is not monophyletic (Wilkie et al.).

SELECTED REFERENCE Wilkie, P. et al. 2006. Phylogenetic relationships within the subfamily Sterculioideae (Malvaceae/Sterculiaceae-Sterculieae) using the chloroplast gene ndhF. Syst. Bot. 31: 160–170.

1 Follicles woody; seeds hairy.   1 Brachychiton, p. xxx
+ Follicles chartaceous; seeds glabrous.   2 Firmiana, p. xxx


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