2i. Ranunculus Subg. Ceratocephala (Moench) L. D. Benson, Amer. J. Bot. 27: 806. 1940.
Ceratocephala Moench, Methodus, 218. 1794
Plants villous. Stems erect, not bulbous-based, without bulbils. Roots basal, never tuberous. Leaves all basal, petiolate; blade 1-2×-dissected. Inflorescences terminal, solitary flowers. Flowers: sepals persistent in fruit, 5, 3-6 × 1-2 mm; petals 5, yellow; nectary scale attached basally, forming flap over nectary, glabrous, free margin entire; style present. Fruits achenes, 3-locular, lateral locules empty; achene body ellipsoid, about as wide as thick, not prolonged beyond seed; wall firm, smooth; margin low narrow ridge; beak much longer than achene body.
Species 10 (1 in the flora): North America, Pacific Islands, Australia, Europe, c, sw Asia, and n Africa.
Ranunculus subg. Ceratocephala is very different in aspect and fruit structure from other species of the genus; it is often treated as a distinct genus.
Klokov, M. V. 1978. The genus Ceratocephala Moench., on aspects of its overall biological differentiation [in Russian]. In: M. V. Klokov et al., eds. 1977. 1978. Novosti sistematiki vysshikh i nizshikh rasteniy 1977. Kiev. Pp. 7-73.