All Floras      Advanced Search
Flora of Taiwan Login | eFloras Home | Help
Flora of Taiwan | Family List | Orchidaceae

Listera R. Br.


SU, Horng-Jye and HU, Chia-Ying

Terrestrial perennial herbs with fibrous roots and short rhizome. Stems simple, erect, slender, with 2 leaves near middle, usually puberulous, turning into peduncle above leaves, glabrous below leves. Leaves opposite or subopposite, nearly sessile, deltoid, ovate-semiorbicular or orbicular-ovate, acute, mucronate or obtuse at apex, truncate or cordate at base, entire or slightly wavy, mainly 3-7-nerved, with reticulate veinlets. Raceme terminal, with few to many flowers; peduncle and rachis more or less puberulous; bracts ovate-lanceolate or broadly ovate; pedicel and ovary straight or curved, glabrous or slightly puberulous. Flowers usually greenish, sometimes tinged with red-purple on lip; sepals and petals subequal, free, spreading or reflexed, dorsal sepal ovate or lanceolate, lateral sepals obliquely ovate or falcate, petals linear-lanceolate or linear-oblong; lip spreading, undivided or with 2 terminal lobes, sometimes with 2 auricles at base or 2 lateral lobes near base, cuneate, elongate-cuneate or rectangular, entire, incised or ciliate along margins, spurless, disc glabrous or shortly puberulous, flat or sometimes with raised calli or keels, often with shallow nectary of various forms near middle or base; column either short and stout, or slender and elongate, short one nearly sessile, consisting of anther, clinandrium and stigma, without distinct stalk, elongate one consisting of dilated and incurved top, slender neck and slightly dilated stalk at base; anther terminal, nearly erect or inclined, 2-loculed; pollinia 2, unequally 2partite, soft and mealy; stigma entire, concave under rostellum; rostellum, ovate or rectangular.

About 30-40 species, widespread in temperate regions of the northern hemisphere. Nine species in Taiwan.


1 Lip with 2 small lateral lobes ca. 0.7 mm from base, base narrowly clawed.   Listera pseudonipponica
+ Lip without distinct lateral lobes near base, base cuneate or truncate, sometimes extending backwards forming small or large auricles.   (2)
2 (1) Column consisting of anther and stigma, without distinct dilated stalk.   (3)
+ Column clearly differentiated into dilated incurved top, slender middle neck and dilated stalk at base.   (4)
3 (2) Lip with distinct basal auricles embracing top of column; disc with Y-shaped fleshy keel; leaves cuspidate-cordate or ovate-rhombic.   Listera japonica
+ Lip with small basal auricles not embracing column; disc with simple longitudinal fleshy keel; leaves deltoid or deltoid-ovate.   Listera suzukii
4 (2) Lip cordate-emarginate or shallowly 2-lobed at apex, lobes less than 1/10 length of lip.   (5)
+ Lip distinctly 2-lobed near apex, lobes more than 1/5 length of lip.   (6)
5 (4) Leaves orbicular-ovate; lip elongate-obtriangular or obovate, 8-10 mm long.   Listera morrisonicola
+ Leaves ovate-semiorbicular; lip spatulate, less than 5 mm long.   Listera taizanensis
6 (4) Lip shortly ciliate at least along apical margins (more obvious microscopically); column 4-5 mm long.   (7)
+ Lip not ciliate; column 2-3 mm long.   (8)
7 (6) Lip with wavy crisped margins, midrib thickened into longitudinal keel; sepals not keeled abaxially.   Listera meifongensis
+ Lip with flat margins, midrib longitudinally grooved and bordered by 2 lateral low ridges; sepals distinctly keeled abaxially.   Listera macrantha
8 (6) Lip shortly stipitate at base, lanceolate, ca. 5 times longer than wide, with 2 divergent linear lobes near middle.   Listera kuanshanensis
+ Lip not stipitate at base, rectangular, 2-3 times longer than wide, with 2 rectangular or elongate triangular, parallel lobes near apex.   Listera nankomontana

Lower Taxa

Related Synonym(s):


 |  eFlora Home |  People Search  |  Help  |  ActKey  |  Hu Cards  |  Glossary  |