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Flora of Taiwan | Family List | Commelinaceae | Amischotolype

Amischotolype hispida (Less. et A. Rich.) Hong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12 (4): 461. 1974; D. Y. Hong et al., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 13 (3): 71. 1997.


Forrestia hispida Less. et A. Rich., Sert. Astrolab. 2. tab. 1. 1834; C. B. Clarke in DC., Monogr. Phanerog. 3: 236. 1881; Henry, List Pl. Formos. 99. 1896 Forrestia chinensis N. E. Brown, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36: 158. 1903. Amischotolype chinensis (N. E. Brown) E. H. Walker ex Hatusima, Fl. Ryukyus 771. 1971. K. C. Hsu in Li et al., Fl. Taiwan 5: 158. pl. 1305. 1978.

Perennial stout herbs, 20-100 cm tall. Roots fibrous. Main stems erect, often with subterranean rhizomes, nearly glabrous. Leaves subsessile, clusterde on the upper part of stems; blade lanceolate, 15-25 cm long, 4.5-7 cm wide, apex acuminate, base long attenuate, upper surface glabrous, lower glabrous-puberulous, margin puberulous; sheath 2-4 cm, overlapping upward; petiole and sheath fulvous ciliate at margins, hairs 2.5-4 mm long. Inflorescence a dense thyrse, composed of 3-4 cincinii, capitate at nodes; bract ovate, acute, carinate, 5-9 mm long, 4-8 mm wide, glabrous-hirsute, margin and keel ciliate. Flowers bisexual , actinomorphic; sepals 3, greenish, oblong, cucullate, obtuse, unequal, 9.5-13 mm long, 2.5-3.8 mm wide, carina acute, margin and keel ciliate; petals 3, free, white, oblanceolate-oblong, obtuse, 8.5-10 mm long, 2-3.5 mm wide; stamens 6, equal, anthers white, narrowly elliptic-oblong, ca. 1 mm long, filaments ca. 9.5 mm long, barbate, the hairs moniliform; ovary ellipsoid, 3-angled, ca. 2 mm long, apex hirsute; style glabrous, ca. 12 mm. Capsules trilocular, 3-valved, ellipsoid, 7-9 mm long, 4-5.5 mm across, locules 1-2 seeded, apex hirsute. Seeds uniseriate, deltoid-trapezoidal in outline, apex acute, base truncate, ca. 3 mm long, 2-3 mm wide, rugose, with an orange fleshy aril, embryotega semilateral, hilum curved. Chromosome number: n = 18, 2n = 36.

Taipei: Chihnankung, Chao s. n. Dec. 26, 1960 (TNU); Chihsingshan, Yangminshan National Park, Y. J. Chen & Hsu 868 (TNU); Chinteinkan, Jeng 181 (TAI); Chungho, Yantungszu, Ho 102 (TAIF); Hsaokotou to Kankou, elev. ca. 200-500 m, Hsu 9107 (TAI); Hsiaokotou, Lin 9 (TNU); Juifang Town: en route from Houtung to Mutan, Y. J. Chen et al. 296 (TNU); Keelung City: water shed of Nuannuan reserver, Y. J. Chen et al. 523 (TNU); Koko (Kuanghsing), Suzuki s. n. Nov. 3, 1932 (TAI); Kuanyinshan, Wang 2778 (TAI); same loc., elev. ca. 370 m, Peng 6032 (HAST); Kungliao to Tali (Ilan Hsien), between Kungliao and Hutzupei (a stone tablet), elev. ca. 300 m, Peng et al. 13583 (HAST); same loc., Y. J. Chen 443 (TNU); Lelekuo, Y. J. Chen & Wang 863 (TNU); Martsou, Yang 1675 (TAI); same loc., elev. ca. 600-650 m, Peng & Yang 8640 (HAST); Mt. Sevenstar to Tsuchuhu, elev. ca. 500-700 m, Hsu 6564 (TAI); Muchihshan, Simizu 629 (TAI); Pingling, Huang 9063 (TAI); Pinglin Hsiang: Taiyuku, en route from Chinkualiaohsi (stream) to Preserve of Keteleeria davidiana, elev. ca. 210-350 m, Liu et al. 21 (HAST); Pinlin, elev. ca. 300m, Shen 1916 (NY, HAST); Pinglin: Huangchupiliao, Y. J. Chen et al 280 (TNU); Pinghsi, Shen 243 (TNU); Sanhsia, Hsiungkung to Manyueyuan, Wang 9439 (TNU); Sanhsia, Jinminshan, Peng 6230 (HAST, TNU); Sanhsia Town : Tungman Mountain Hiking Trail; from Tungyenshan Forest Recreation Area to Peichatienshan, elev. ca. 1100-1260 m, Wang et al. 472 (HAST); Mt. Peichatienshan, elev. ca. 500 m, Peng 7437 (HAST); "Chengpai Villa" to Peichatienshan, elev. ca. 550-600 m, Peng 8622 (HAST); Shihting District: en route to Mt. Huangtitienshan, elev. ca. 440 m, Peng 8558 (HAST); same loc., ca. 550 m, Wang 714 (HAST); same loc., Y. J. Chen et al 250 (TNU); Shihtin, Huang 9106 (TAI); same loc., Shyu s. n. Jan. 15, 1996 (TAIF); at the foot of Sha-Mao shan, Peng 4555 (HAST); Sozan (Yangmingli), Shimada s. n. Oct. 1913 (TAIF); Sushowshan near Shanchangli, Tu 4454 (TAI); Taipei, Sasaki s. n. Aug. 22, 1929 (TAI); same loc., Sasaki s. n. Oct. 1918 (TAIF); Taihyo (Chachiao), Suzuki 3449 (TAI); same loc., Masamune s. n. Dec. 30, 1929 (TAI); Taishan Hsiang: en route from Taishan to Linko, Taishanyen. Y. J. Chen 261 (TNU); Yangmingshan National Park: Tatunshan, en route from Parking Lot of The Tatun Nature Park to Erhtzuping, elev. ca. 825-840 m, Shen et al. 299 (HAST); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Huang 247 (TNU); Tatunshan to Hsinpeitou, Kao 9053 (TAI); Tienmu to Shueeiguan country road, Chen 157 (TNU); Sinten, Wantan, Simizu 3260 (TAI); Sinten, Yinhotung, Wang 2739 (TAI); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Shen 270, 274 (TNU); Wulai, Fushan-Hapan, Tang 53 (TAI); Wulai Hsiang: Neitung Forest Recreation area, Y. J. Chen et al. 287, 288 (TNU); Wulai Hsiang: en route from Neitung Forest Road to Tapaokoshan, elev. ca. 870 m, Ho et al. 787 (HAST); Wulai, elev. ca. 150-200 m, Peng & Chan 10023 (HAST); same loc., Peng 8362 (HAST); Wulai: en route from Hsinhsien to Wulai Waterfall, ca. 1 km across the hanging bridge. Broadleaf forest. In thickets, elev. ca. 210 m, Peng et al. 14808 (HAST). Taoyuan: Kappanzan, Sasaki s. n. 1915 (TAIF); Tachi, Yang 5031 (TAIF, TNU, HAST); en trail from Paling to Fushan. Y. J. Chen et al. 633 (TNU). Hsinchu: Wuchihshan. In Cryptomeria plantation, elev. ca. 650-700 m, Peng et al. 12921 (HAST). Miaoli: Miaoli, Sasaki s. n. Apr. 1910 (TAIF); Shihtan, Peng 4750 (HAST). Taichung: Peitun Area Takeng trail, Liu et al. 420 (TAIF); Taping, Kawakami & Shimada 4406 (TAI); Tienlun to Paileng. Roadside, on debris, elev. ca. 1200 m, Chaw 165 (HAST); Pahsienshan Forest Recreation Area, Chen 1947 (TNU). Nantou: Chitou, Tashuepond, Yang 175 (TAI); Gojio to Rengechi (Wucheng to Lienhuachih), Yamamoto & Mori s. n. Nov. 2, 1932 (TAI); Rengechi (Lienhuachih), Hibino & Suzuki s. n. Jul. 18, 1936 (TAI); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Hsu 729 (TNU); Jenai Hsiang: Huisun Experimental Forest, elev. ca. 1000 m, Peng 746 (HAST); same loc., Chen 755 (HAST); Hui-Sun Experimental forest, Camp. Area, Y. J. Chen & Hsu 759 (TNU); en route from Hui-Sun Experimental forest to Tangkung stone, Y. J. Chen & Hsu 769 (TNU); Kaundaushin, Moo 2316 (TAI); same loc., elev. ca. 680 m, Peng & Hu 12233 (HAST); Kuanying waterfall, close to Puli, Wu et al. s. n. Jul. 29,1970 (TAI); Kwannondaki, Hori (Kuanying waterfall), Suzuki 6435 (TAI); Lushan. In forest; wet and shaded habitat, elev. ca. 1100-1400 m, Peng 6165 (HAST); same loc., Y. J. Chen 503 (TNU); Musya Santinozyo (Meifeng Mt. Farm of National Taiwan University), Nakamura 2413 (TAI); Nenkao Forest Experiment Station, Huang 6073 (TAI); Shuili, on moist shady slope by a drainage ditch, elev. ca. 270-330 m, Peng 9045 (HAST). Chiayi: Chiehtung Villa to Tienyunshan, elev. ca. 700-1300 m, Peng 8883 (HAST); Fenchihu-Tianchian, elev. ca. 1300-1405m, Y. J. Chen & Shen 820 (TNU); Tapu Hsiang: Yuehtao, near Pienfutung, a bat cave, elev. ca. 700 m, Chen 508 (HAST). Kaohsiung: Maolin Hsiang: Shanping Station, Liukuei Branch. Taiwan Forestry Research Inst., between luncheon room and the 2nd watershed area. Mixed Broadleaf forest and. Rocky stream bank, semishady. elev. 700 m, Peng et al. 14745 (HAST); Between Shanping and Nanfengshan, Primary and Secondary broadleaf evergreen forest with some planted Cunninghamia konishii and Calocedrus formosana, elev. ca. 1330m, W. L. Wagner et al. 6613 (HAST); Sanping, Kuo 4014 (TAI); same loc., summer collecting team, s. n. Jul. 13, 1983 (TNU); Weiliaoshan, Yang 20121 (TNU). Pingtung: Liangshan, Y. J. Chen & Huang 771 (TNU); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Hong 343 (TNU); Lilung shan, Y. J. Chen & Hong 382, 520 (TNU); Manchow District., Peng & Tsai 7408 (HAST); Nanjenshan, Chuang s. n. Sep. 13, 1997 (TAIF); Pinang, elev. ca. 230m, along a road to Nijenshan deforested, Hsu 7992 (TAI); Man-Chou Hsiang: along a road to Nanjenshan NTU sampling area, In Areca plantation. Y. J. Chen et al. 851 (TNU); Pengchishan, elev. ca. 700-800 m, Y. J. Chen 439 (TNU). Ilan: Doba to Zyuziro (Tuchang to Shihtzulu), Suzuki 6355 (TAI); Doba, Suzuki 4160 (TAI); Kin’yan (Chinyang), Suzuki 6146 (TAI); Is. Kizan (Kueishan Island), Masamune & Suzuki s. n. Jul. 3, 1932 (TAI); Taiheizan, Suzuki 4160 (TAI); Yuanshan Hsiang: en route (Hsien Rd. #9) to Shuanglienpei (pound.), elev. ca. 550 m, Y. J. Chen et al. 892 (TNU). Hualien: Hsiulin Hsiang: logging route beside Paipaoshi, from Pinho to Yuanlaonaoshan, elev. ca. 200 m, Leu et al. 1453 (HAST); Liyutan. (a lake near Huanlien City), Y. J. Chen & Shen 437, Shen 238 (TNU); Munkwashan, No.1 cableway, Liu et al. 185 (TAI); Taroko National Park: Tali to Taitung, elev. ca. 850 m, Chen 143 (HAST); same loc., Chen 2093 (TNU); Zuesue Spring, elev. ca. 200-250 m, Tateishi 15783 (TAI). Taitung: Chihpenwenchien, elev. ca. 600-1600 m, Hsu & Kao 3259 (TAI); Hongtou, elev. ca. 200-400 m, Hsu 4848 (TAI); same loc., Lu 25244 (TAIF); Lanyu, en enroute from Hongtou to Tienchih, elev. ca. 300 m, Peng 7682 (HAST); Lanyu, Hsieh 1606 (TAI); Tawu to Tsusueipo, elev. ca. 600 m, Hsu 3428 (TAI); Tienchih, Botel Tobago, elev. ca. 200-400 m, Hsu 5010 (TAI).

Distribution: the Ryukyus, China (Fujian, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxl, Guizhou, Yunnan, Xizang), Indo-China Peninsula, Indonesia, New Guinea. Taiwan, under forest from 150-1600 m throughout the island. Flowering all the year round, central in Jul.-Dec.

台灣早期名錄除Henry (1896) 記錄Forrestia hispida Rich et Liss.外,其餘皆記錄Forrestia chinensis N. E. Brown,Hong (1974) 認為這兩種不論在形態或地理分布上都沒有區別,主張應合併,本研究比較C. B. Clarke (1881)對F. hispida的描述及Brown (1903)發表的原始描述,發現F. hispida除了植株、萼片、果實及種子略大於F. chinensis外,形態上並無顯著差異,而台灣的族群都包含這些形態的變異,因此贊成Hong (1974, 1977) 的處理。本種植物在葉背、葉鞘、苞片、萼片及蒴果的被毛程度差異很大,甚至同一族群都存在變異,被毛及光滑的個體其染色體皆為n = 18,形態上也沒有差異,因此認為被毛程度僅為種內個體間的變異。

Phenology: perennial herbs, evergreen

Roors form: roots fibrous

Stems form: monomorphic stem

Monomorphic stems habit: rhizomatous

Rooting at nodes or not: rooting at nodes

Lateral shoots: perforating

Phyllotaxis: spiral phyllotaxis

Leaves: petiole: subsessile

Leaves: shape (if dimorphic leaves, selected by rosette leaves): lanceolate

Leaves: apex: acuminate

Leaves: length (cm): 15-25

Leaves: width (cm): 4.5-7

Leaves indumentum: upper surface: glabrous

If upper surface glabrous, leaves indumentum: margin: pubscent

Prophyll: sheathing, apex acute

Inflorescence: take plance: axillary

Inflorescence: thyrse

Bracts: shape: ovate

Corolla: actinomorphic: petal 3, base free, equal or subequal

Flowers: bisexual

Sepals: sepal 3, subequal

Sepals: color: greenish

Sepals: base: free

Sepals: shape: oblong

Sepals: indumentum: margin and ridge ciliate

Sepals: length (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 9.5-13

Sepals: width (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 2.5-3.8

Flowers: color: white

Petals: shape: oblanceolate-oblong

Petals: length (mm): 8.5-10

Petals: width (mm): 2-3.5

Stamens form: monomorphic: fertile stamens 6

Ovarys: shape: ellipsoid

Ovarys: indumentum: apex hirsute

Ovarys: length (mm): 2

Styles: indumentum: glabrous

Styles: length (mm): 12

Capsules: dehiscence: dehiscent

Capsules: shape: ellipsoid

Capsules: trilocular

Capsules: indumentum: apex hirsute

Capsule locules seeds: number: 1-2

Capsules: length (mm): 7-9

Seeds: lengh (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 3

Seeds: width (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 2-3


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