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Flora of Taiwan | Family List | Commelinaceae | Commelina

Commelina communis Linn., Sp. Pl. 1: 40. 1753; D. Y. Hong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12 (4): 481, 1974; K. C. Hsu in Li et al. Fl. Taiwan 5: 164. 1978; D. Y. Hong et al., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 13 (3): 127. pl. 29. 1997.


Commelina communis

Credit: Jenn-Che Wang

Commelina polygama Roth in Roem. & Ust., Bot. Mag. 4: 14. 1790; Henry, List Pl. Formos. 98. 1954.

Annual herbs. Roots fibrous. Stems branched, prostrate at base, erect above, rooting at nodes, puberulous along a line decurrent from the sheath. Leaves sessile to subpetiolate; blade lanceolate, 5.5-8 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide, apex acuminate, base oblique, puberulous, scabrescent at margins; sheath cylindrical, with red stripes, puberulous or pilose at margins. Prophyll ca. 1.5 cm long, diam. 3 mm. Inflorescences terminal, upper cincinnus with 1 enserted male flower; lower cincinnus with 1-3 bisexual flowers; spathes broadly cordate, folded, ca. 1.7-2.6 cm long, ca. 2.5 cm wide, apex acute, base cordate, veinlets conspicuous, puberulous; bracteoles falling off early; peduncles 1.7-2.5 cm long; pedicels ca. 3-4 mm long, erect in anthesis and bent in fruiting. Flowers zygomorphic, bisexual; sepals 3, greenish, persistent, elliptic, concave, unequal, the anticous 2, basally fused, elliptic, 4.5-5 mm long, 3-3.7 mm wide, glabrous; the posticous one lanceolate, ca. 4.5 mm long, ca. 2.2 mm wide; petals 3, free, unequal, the lateral petals 2, indigo, equal, planar, clawed, the limb broadly ovate, ca. 10 mm long, 8-10 mm wide, apex acute, base cuneate-cordate, the claw ca. 3 mm long; the medial petal white, ca. 6 mm long, ca. 2 mm wide; fertile stamens 3, anticous, unequal, the lateral two, anther maroon to indigo, elliptic, base sagittate, ca. 2 mm long, filament ca. 10-12 mm long; the medial one, anther yellow, connective maroon, elliptic, base hastate, ca. 2.5 mm long, filament ca. 5-6 mm long; staminodes 3, posticous, all alike, antherodes cruciate, ca 2 mm long, filament ca. 3 mm long, with 2 lateral abortive pollen sacks; ovary ellipsoid, ca. 2 mm long; style ca. 1.3 cm long. Capsules bilocular, 2-valved, dehiscent, brown, ellipsoid, ca. 6-7 mm long, locules 2-seeded, glabrous. Seeds brown, deltoid in outline, dorsiventral, ventral surface planar, dorsal convex, ca. 2.5-3.5 mm long, ca. 2.5 mm across, reticulate, scrobiculate, densely covered with smaller farinose granules and sparse with larger farinose granules. Chromosome number: n = 44.

Fuchien: Lienchiang Hsien: Chukuang Hsiang : Tungchu: near the lighthouse. On semi-shaded roadside, elev. ca. 10 m, Liu & Ho 676 (TNU,HAST); Peikan Hsiang : along the road near Paishakang, elev. ca. 20 m, Liu & Ho 596 (HAST). Taiwan Taoyuan: Fuhsing District: Hsiayun, weeds in depressed, swampy area by an aboriginal village, elev. ca. 350 m, Peng 10273 (HAST); Fuhsing District: Lower Paling to Lalashan, elev. ca. 800-1600 m, Peng & Hu 12118 (HAST); en route from Upper Paling to entrance of Lalashan Recreation Area, elev. ca. 1000 m, Peng 11030 (HAST). Hsinchu: Wufeng District: en route from Tuchang to Kuanwu; ca. 12.5 km S of Tuchang, elev. ca. 1280 m, Peng 9380 (HAST). Miaoli: Malabangshan, elev. ca. 825-1000 m, Huang et al. 15609 (TAI). Taichung: Lishan, Wu s. n. Sep. 27, 1996 (TAIF); same loc., Ho 285 (HAST). Nantou: Chitou, elev. ca. 900 m, Hsu 6232 (TAI); Between Chitou & Sunlinksea, elev. ca. 1100-1600 m, Peng 5405 (HAST); Hsinyi Hsiang: Peiyushan, cut from Shalihsienhsi Forest Road through a valley up to a mt. ridge of ca. 1700 m alt. Broadleaf forest in valley, elev. ca. 1300-1700 m, Chiang et al. 91 (HAST); Hsinyi Hsiang: en route from Yunlung Fall to Yinu Fall. Broadleaf forest, elev. ca. 1300-1500 m, Chen et al. 137(HAST); Lushan, Lee et al. s.n. Jul, 1974 (TNU); Mayfeng. Waste field, elev. ca. 2400 m, Peng 9111 (HAST); Musya-Santinozyo-Miharasi, Masamune et al. s. n. Aug. 2, 1939 (TAI); Mt. Nengkao, Kao 5714 (TAI); Sanlinchi, Huang & Tson 9985 (TAI); same loc., Huang 98 (TAI); Shini District: Shenmu Village: Tapingting, elev. ca. 1300 m, Peng 6944, 7771 (HAST); Suaili to Tawuan, Kuoh s.n. Aug, 8 1969 (TAI); Sun-moon-lake, Wu-teng., Chaw 178 (HAST); Tung-Pu, elev. ca. 1120m, Huang 1586 (TNU); Enroute from Tungpu Hot Spring to Kuankao, elev. ca. 1500 m, Peng 8065 (HAST); Enroute from Tungpu to Hoshe, Huang 3443 (TNU); Wushe, elev. ca. 1100m, Peng 8344 (HAST). Chiayi: Fenchihu-Tianchian, elev. ca. 1300-1405 m, Wang et al. 6243 (TNU, HAST), 6244 (TNU); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Shen 819 (TNU). Pingtung: Wanluan District: Wanchin. In fallow field, elev. ca. 0 m, Peng & Chen 10150 (HAST). Ilan: Nanshan, Kao 3130 (TAI); Mt. Taipei, Chuang et al. 4800 (TAI); Taipingshan, elev. ca. 1950 m, Peng 7868 (HAST); same loc., Y. J. Chen 857 (TNU). Hualien: Karenko, Hosokawa s. n. Aug. 13, 1932 (TAI); Shoufeng District. Mt. Mukwashan Forest, Halun Station, elev. ca. 2000 m, Peng 7357 (HAST).

Canada, Northern USA, South-eastern USA, South-central USA, Italy, Central Europe, South-eastern Europe, USSR, China (Yunnan, Sichuan, Gansu), Japan, Korea. Taiwan, in open sunny places from 350-2400 m. Flowering in May.- Nov.

Hsu (1978) 描述本分類群花梗在苞片以上有分支,上分支皆著生雄花;但本研究發現並非所有上分支皆為雄性花,有些為兩性花,且可結飽滿的果實。 本種植物形態上和Co. diffusa極為相似,以營養器官幾乎無法區別兩者,但生殖器官的特徵則十分穩定且有用:本種植物苞片較大,寬心臟形,花大,有一枚花瓣較小,為白色,果實二室,每室二顆種子;Co. diffusa苞片較小,為狹長的心臟形,花較小,三枚花瓣皆為藍色,果實三室,其中一室不開裂,內含一顆種子。在海拔分布方面,本種植物主要分布在中海拔地區較高於Co. diffusa。

Phenology: annual herbs, evergreen

Roors form: roots fibrous

Stems form: monomorphic stem

Monomorphic stems habit: procumbent

Rooting at nodes or not: rooting at nodes

Lateral shoots: not perforating

Phyllotaxis: spiral phyllotaxis

Leaves: petiole: sessile, subpetiolate

Leaves: shape (if dimorphic leaves, selected by rosette leaves): lanceolate

Leaves: apex: acuminate

Leaves: length (cm): 5.5-8

Leaves: width (cm): 1.5-2

Leaves indumentum: upper surface: pubscent

Prophyll: sheathing, apex acute

Inflorescence: take plance: terminal

Inflorescence: cincinnus

Bracts: shape: spathe broadly cordate, folded

Corolla: zygomorphic: petal 3, base free, unequal

Flowers: bisexual

Sepals: sepal 3, unequal

Sepals: color: greenish

Sepals: base: the anticous 2, basally fused

Sepals: shape: the anticous 2 elliptic; the posticous one lanceolate

Sepals: indumentum: glabrous

Sepals: length (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 4.5-5

Sepals: width (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 3-3.7

Flowers: color: pink, purple, or blue

Petals: shape: dimorphic: the lateral petals 2 broadly ovate; the medial petal small

Petals: length (mm): 10

Petals: width (mm): 8-10

Stamens form: trimorphic: fertile stamens 3

Ovarys: shape: ellipsoid

Ovarys: indumentum: glabrous

Ovarys: length (mm): 2

Styles: indumentum: glabrous

Styles: length (mm): 1.3

Capsules: dehiscence: dehiscent

Capsules: shape: ellipsoid

Capsules: bilocular

Capsules: indumentum: glabrous

Capsule locules seeds: number: 2

Capsules: length (mm): 6-7

Seeds: lengh (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 2.5-3.5

Seeds: width (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 2.5


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