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Flora of Taiwan | Family List | Commelinaceae | Commelina

Commelina paludosa Bl., Enum. Pl. Jav. 3. 1827; Rao, Not. Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 25: 181. 1967; D. Y. Hong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12 (4): 481, 1974; K. C. Hsu in Li et al. Fl. Taiwan 5: 165. 1978; D. Y. Hong et al., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 13 (3): 129. Pl. 31. 1997.

大葉鴨跖草 (大苞鴨跖草)

Commelina obliqua Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don, Prodr. Fl. Nepal. 45. 1825, non Vahl. 1806. nom. illegit.; Henry, List Pl. Formos. 98. 1896; Brown, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36: 157. 1903.

Perennial herbs. Roots fibrous. Stems branched, prostrate at base, erect above, rooting at nodes, villous along a line decurrent from the sheath, otherwise nearly glabrous or sparsely pilose. Leaves sessile-subpetiolate; the midrib above the leaf white, lanceolate, 9-19 cm long, 2.5-5 cm wide, apex acuminate, base oblique, upper surface scabrous, glabrous beneath; sheath cylindrical, with red stripes, villous at margins. Prophyll ca. 2-2.5 cm long, diam. 3-4 mm, pilose at margins, villous at ridge beneath the leaf. Inflorescences a single 1-4 flowered cincinni, terminal; 1-7 inflorescences uaually aggregated at the terminal of stems; spathes infundibuliform, obliquely obtriangular, the lower edge slightly curved, ca. 1.5-2.7 cm long, uncinate; peduncles ca. 0.3 cm long; pedicels ca. 4-5 mm long. Flowers zygomorphic, sepals 3, greenish, persistent, elliptic, concave, unequal, the anticous 2, elliptic, 3.5-4.5 mm long, 1.5-2.5 mm wide, glabrous; the posticous one lanceolate, 3-4 mm long, ca. 2 mm wide; petals 3, free, unequal, the lateral petals 2, mauve to indigo, equal, planar, clawed, the limb broadly rounded-ovate, ca. 8 mm long, ca. 9 mm wide, apex obtuse, base cuneate-cordate, the claw 3 mm long; the medial petal white, lanceolate, 5-6 mm long, 2 mm wide; fertile stamens 3, anticous, unequal, the lateral two, anther brown, elliptic, base sagittate, ca. 1 mm long, filament ca. 10-13 mm long; the medial one, anther yellow, elliptic, base hastate, ca 1.5-2 mm long, filament ca. 7 mm long; staminodes 3, posticous, all alike, antherodes cruciate, ca 1.5 mm long, filament 5.5 mm long; ovary ellipsoid-globose, ca. 1.5-2 mm long; style ca. 8-9 cm long. Capsules trilocular, 3-valved, lustrous, brown, globoid, diam. ca. 4-5 mm, locules 1-seeded, seeds sometimes abortive, glabrous. Seeds brown to black, reniform in outline, dorsiventral, ventral surface planar, dorsal convex, ca. 3-3.8 mm long, ca. 2.5 mm across, smooth, densely coverde with small farinose granules. Chromosome number: n = 30.

Taipei: Betansan (Pitanshan), Simizu 2202 (TAI); Hsintien, Fujida s.n. Oct 17, 1933 (TNU); Hushan, Kao 10133 (TAI); Sanhsia: Wuliaochien, Along shady path, elev. ca. 100-150 m, Peng 9023 (HAST); Wantan, Simizu 3259 (TAI); Sinten City: Yinhotung, Y. J. Chen & Lin 836 (TNU); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Shen 269, 273 (TNU). Taoyuan: Provincial road #7, Chilan, 400-500 m, Wang 10521 (TNU). Hsinchu: Wuchihshan. Roadside, elev. ca. 700 m, Peng et al. 12926 (HAST). Miaoli: Taiko (Tahu), Kawakami et al. s. n. Aug. 1, 1907 (TAIF). Taichung: Pahsienshan, Sasaki s. n. Nov. 23, 1922 (TAIF); Pahsienshan Forest Recreation Area, Chen 1934 (TNU); Taityu Ensyurin, Suzuki s. n. Dec. 14, 1922 (TAI). Nantou: Chitou, Huang s. n. Oct. 7, 1979 (TAI); Chunyang, Y. J. Chen & Shen 510 (TNU); en route from Chunyang to Tolowan. By a waterfall, elev. 1250 m, Peng 7541 (HAST); Hokkokei (Peikanghsi), Sasaki s. n. Nov. 28, 1922 (TAIF); Hui-Sun Experimental Forest Camp. Area, Y. J. Chen & Hsu 756 (TNU); Jenai District: Wusheh, at campus of Jenai Senior Agricultural School, elev. ca. 1150 m, Peng 6074, 6082 (HAST); Kuanying water fall, close to Puli, Wu et al. s. n. Jul. 29, 1970 (TAI); Lienhwachih, Y. J. Chen & Hsu 729 (TNU); Lushan, Hsu 188 (TAI); same loc., elev. ca. 1100-1400 m, Peng 6172 (HAST,TNU); same loc., Y. J. Chen 509 (TNU); Mukaiyama-Rinryu, Kudo & Sasaki s. n. Sep. 23, 1929 (TAI); Puli, Kawakami s. n. Oct. 1916 (TAIF); Puli: Taomikeng, Y. J. Chen 859 (TNU); Wushe, elev. ca. 1150 m, Peng 6946 (HAST). Chiayi: Chiayi Co., Hsu 75 (TAI); en route from Chiehtung Villa to Tienyunshan, elev. ca. 700-1300 m, Peng 8881 (HAST); Fanlu District: en route from Longmei (=Laitou) to Tsaoshan, elev. ca. 900-1000 m, Peng et al. 10026 (HAST); Fenchihu to Dadonshan, elev. ca. 1500 m, Y. J. Chen & Shen 824 (TNU); Tapu Hsiang: Watershed area of Tsengwen Dam, along a trail from bridge #4, Y. J. Chen et al. 810 (TNU); Tapu Hsiang: Yuehtao, near Pienfutung, a bat cave, elev. ca. 700 m, Chen 509 (HAST). Kaohsiung: Lioukue, Shuangsi, elev. ca. 100 m, Ohashi et al. 14881 (TAI); same loc., Chao 794 (TAI); Maolin Hsiang: en route from Liukuei Branch, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute. Wet place, elev. ca. 1200 m, Wang et al. 581 (HAST); Maolin Hsiang: Shanping Station, Liukuei Branch, Taiwan Forestry Research Inst., Between luncheon room and the 2nd watershed area, elev. ca. 700 m, Peng et al. 14749; Maolin Hsiang, Yang 20148 (PPI); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Hong 431 (TNU); Shanping, elev. ca. 650 m, Chen & Wang 339 (HAST); Takao to Taito, Sasaki s. n. Oct. 13, 1934 (TAI); Tengchih, elev. ca. 1550-1700 m, Huang et al. 13936 (TAI); Taoyuan Hsiang, Paoshan Village, Shihshan Forest Road, elev. ca. 1500m, Wang et al. 10394 (TNU); Tengchih to Mt. Tsuyunshan, elev. ca. 800-1500 m, Ohashi 12860 (TAI); Weiliao shan, Yang 20151 (PPI). Pingtung: Makua, Huang & Kao 7479 (TAI); Paiwan, Matuda 460 (TAI); Tawushan, Matsuda s. n. Nov. 20, 1918 (TAIF); Wutai District: en route from Wutai to Ali, elev. ca. 1000-1100 m, Peng 10217 (HAST). Hualien: Chohsi Hsiang: Yushan National Park, Batungguan trail, en route from Huangma to Walami along the Lakulaku river valley, Broadleaf forest, elev. ca. 780-860 m, Lin et al. 31 (HAST); Fengpin Hsiang: Hsinshe village, in braod-leave forest, elev. ca. 200 m, Leu et al. 1477 (HAST); Hungyeh, elev. ca. 280 m, s. coll. s. n. Jul. 3, 1988 (TNU); Juishui District: Fuyuan Village: Butterfly Vallely, elev. ca. 200-280 m, Peng & Chen 11672 (HAST); Mt. Luanshan, Huang 4287 (TAI); same loc., Peng et al 9890 (HAST) Taitung: Chihpenwnchienhoushan, Hsu & Hsu 4041(TAI).

India, Nepal, Himalayas, South China (Xizang, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangxi, Hunan, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Fujian), Malaysia, Indonesia. Taiwan, in semishady and waste places from 100-1700 m. Flowering in May.- Dec., central in Sep.-Dec.

本種植物植株明顯大於同屬的其他種類,葉子近乎排在同一平面,花序頂生,花莖 (flowering shoots) 短縮,常見數個花序集生在枝端。

Phenology: perennial herbs, evergreen

Roors form: roots fibrous

Stems form: monomorphic stem

Monomorphic stems habit: procumbent

Rooting at nodes or not: rooting at nodes

Lateral shoots: not perforating

Phyllotaxis: nearly arrangement in the same plant

Leaves: petiole: sessile, subpetiolate

Leaves: shape (if dimorphic leaves, selected by rosette leaves): lanceolate

Leaves: apex: acuminate

Leaves: length (cm): 9-19

Leaves: width (cm): 2.5-5

Leaves indumentum: upper surface: pubscent

Prophyll: sheathing, apex acute

Inflorescence: take plance: terminal

Inflorescence: cincinnus

Bracts: shape: spathe infundibuliform, obliquely obtriangular

Corolla: zygomorphic: petal 3, base free, unequal

Flowers: bisexual

Sepals: sepal 3, unequal

Sepals: color: greenish

Sepals: base: free

Sepals: shape: the anticous 2 elliptic; the posticous one lanceolate

Sepals: indumentum: glabrous

Sepals: length (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 3.5-4.5

Sepals: width (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 1.5-2.5

Flowers: color: pink, purple, or blue

Petals: shape: dimorphic: the lateral petals 2 broadly rounded-ovate; the medial petal lanceolate

Petals: length (mm): 8

Petals: width (mm): 9

Stamens form: trimorphic: fertile stamens 3

Ovarys: shape: ellipsoid-globose

Ovarys: indumentum: glabrous

Ovarys: length (mm): 1.5-2

Styles: indumentum: glabrous

Styles: length (mm): 8-9

Capsules: dehiscence: dehiscent

Capsules: shape: globoid

Capsules: trilocular

Capsules: indumentum: glabrous

Capsule locules seeds: number: 1

Capsules: length (mm): 4-5

Seeds: lengh (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 3-3.8

Seeds: width (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 2.5


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