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Flora of Taiwan | Family List | Commelinaceae | Commelina

Commelina benghalensis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 41. 1753; Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 6: 29. tab. 2065. 1853; Henry, List Pl. Formos. 98. 1896; Brown, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36: 155. 1903; Morton, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 60: 176. 1967; D. Y. Hong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12 (4): 481, 1974; K. C. Hsu in Li et al. Fl. Taiwa.
[nom. cons.]

圓葉鴨跖草 (飯包草)

Annual herbs. Roots fibrous. Stems branched, prostrate at base, erect above, rooting at nodes, densely uncinate. Leaves sessile to subpetiolate; blade ovate, 5-7.5 cm long, 3-4 cm wide, apex acute, base obtuse to truncate, puberulous and uncinate above, uncinate beneath; sheath cylindrical, with red stripes, densely uncinate, pilose at margins. Prophyll ca. 1.5 cm long, diam. 3 mm. 1-5 flowering shoots branch from the axils of the leaves, upper cincinnus with 1 enserted male flower; lower cincinnus with 1-3 bisexual flowers; some flowering shoots branch from the prostrate stems, with a single cleistogamous flower enveloped by a bract; spathes infundibuliform, dimorphic: in cleistogamous flowers the bract smaller, obtriangular, ca. 3-5 mm long, uncinate; in chasmogamous flowers the bract larger, obliquely obtriangular, ca. 1.9-1.3 cm long, uncinate; peduncles 0.3-1 cm long; pedicels ca. 1-2 mm long. Flowers zygomorphic, dimorphic: in functionally male flowers pistil abortive and usually lacking or vestigial; in bisexual flowers the pistil ca. 6.5 mm long; sepals 3, greenish, persistent, elliptic, concave, unequal, the anticous 2, basally fused, elliptic, the margins sometimes blue and petaloid, ca. 2-3 mm long, ca.1.4 mm across, glabrous; the posticous one lanceolate, 2 mm long, ca. 1.2 mm wide; petals 3, free, unequal: the lateral petals 2, blue to indigo, equal, planar, clawed, the limb broadly rounded-ovate, 4 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, apex obtuse, base cuneate-cordate, the claw ca. 2 mm long; the medial petal white or blue, small, ca. 3 mm long, ca. 1.8 mm wide; fertile stamens 3, anticous, unequal, the lateral two, anther yellow, triangular, hastate, ca. 0.5 mm long, filament ca. 5.5 mm long; the medial one anther trianglular, hastate, ca. 1 mm long, filament ca. 4 mm long; staminodes 3, subequal, the medial staminodes antesepalous, usually lacking or vestigial, the lateral ones antepetalous, antherodes cruciate, ca. 0.6 mm long, filament ca. 4 mm long; ovary ellipsoid-globose, ca. 1 mm long; style ca. 5.5 cm long. Capsules trilocular, 2-valved, brown, ovoid to ellipsoid, 4-5 mm long, 2-3.5 mm across, the ventral locule 2 seeded, dehiscent, the dorsal locule 1 seeded, usually indehiscent, glabrous. Seeds dimorphic: one in dorsal, brown, elliptic in outline, 2.8-3.5 mm long, 1.9-2.2 mm wide, two in ventral locules black, deltoid in outline, smaller, 1.5-2.2 mm long, 1.5-1.8 mm across, dorsiventral, ventral surface planar, dorsal convex, reticulate, densely with small farinose granules and sparse with large farinose granules. Chromosome number: n =11.

Taipei: Chihshanyen, Shimada s. n. Jun. 21, 1914 (TAI); Nankang: campus of Academia Sinica. On grass land.elev. 50 m, Wang & Hsu 778 (HAST); Keelung, Sasaki s. n. Sep. 17, 1907 (TAI); Ouka (Yingko), Suzuki ST1402 (TAI); Sozan, Sasaki & Kanehira s. n. Sep.1922 (TAI). Taoyuan: Kanting, Kawakami & Nakahara 4351 (TAI). Hsinchu: Shintiku, Chen 34 (TAI); same loc., Makino s. n. Nov. 25, 1896 (TAI, photo); Nankang, near Hsiangshan, Y. J. Chen et al. 898 (TNU); Miaoli: Shihtan Hsiang: Shihtan. Orange orchard with some palms. Original vegetation partly preeserved at higher elevations. In dried ditches, elev. ca. 250-300 m, Peng et al. 13931 (HAST); Tonghsiao. Weeds along Haibin (Seashore) Rd, elev. 0-10 m, Peng 5450 (HAST). Yunlin: Ssuhu, Tang 707 (TAI). Chiayi: Tapu Hsiang: Watershed area of Tsengwen Dam, along a trail from bridge #4. Y. J. Chen et al. 810 (TNU). Kaohsiung: Linyuan Hsiang, Y. J. Chen & Lin 426 (TNU). Pingtung: Chunjih Hsiang: on start point of Chichia Forest Road, Y. J. Chen & Hong 396 (TNU); Liangshan, Y. J. Chen & Huang 773 (TNU); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Hong 345 (TNU); Lilungshan, Y. J. Chen & Hong 379 (TNU); Litingshan, Y. J. Chen & Huang 776 (TNU); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Hong 322 (TNU); Kenting: Youth Activity Center at Chingwashih (Frog Rock), Peng 7118 (HAST); Kenting Park: elev. 50-100 m, Peng 12510 (HAST); Santimen. On roadside rocky slopes, Peng 6887 (HAST); Wanluan District: Wanchin, In fallow field, elev. ca. 0 m, Peng 10151 (HAST). Ilan: Chiaohsi Hsiang: seashore of Chuan, No. 276 Chuan Rd., Y. J. Chen & Wang 875 (TNU). Hualien: Karenko, Yamamoto s. n. Sep. 7, 1933 (TAI); Sinzyo, Kwarenko. Suzuki & Ko s. n. Oct. 15, 1934 (TAI); Wanjung District: Hungyeh Village: Hungyeh Hot Spring, elev. ca. 200-400 m, Peng & Chen 11633 (HAST); same loc., s. coll. s. n. Jul 3, 1988 (TNU); Zuesue spring, elev. ca. 200-250 m, Nov. 20, 1982 (TAI). Taitung: Kashoto, Sasaki s. n. Jan. 3, 1929 (TAI); Litao, Wu et al. s. n. Oct. 4, 1997 (TAI); Liyushan. Foothills. Along roadside, elev. ca. 10 m, Peng & Chen 10629 (HAST); Ta-Jen Hiang: Tu-Fan Villa, elev. ca. 200-400 m, Wang & Yang 8939 (TNU); Taito, Shimada s. n. Aug. 24, 1907 (TAI). Penghu: Makung: Sokang, elev. 0-5 m, Peng et al. 12746 (HAST); Makung: weed by a yard, elev. 0-5 m, Peng et al. 12752 (HAST); Penghu, Huang & Kao s. n. Aug. 5, 1973 (TAI).

South-eastern USA, Brazil, Paraguay, Africa, Middle East, Indian subcontinent, SE Asian subcont, China (Shandong, Hebei, Henan, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong, Hunan, Hubei, Jiangxi, Anhui, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Fujian), Japan, Korea, Philippines, Indonesia, Australia, Pacific Islands. Taiwan, in semishady and waste places, usually found in rotation crop farms, forest edge and seashore at low altitude. Flowering in Jun.-Dec.

Morton (1967) 研究西非的種類時,根據棲地、形態及染色體的變異,對本分類群提出亞種的階級,認為Co. benghalensis subsp. benghalensis為一年生草本植物,生活在乾燥地區,染色體2n = 22,28,植株小,葉鞘及苞片具白色毛 (或有少數紅色毛在葉鞘或小梗上),花小,淡紫色;Co. benghalensis subsp. hirsuta為多年生草本植物,生長在潮濕地區、森林農場或山坡,染色體2n = 56, 66,植株大,蔓延,黑紅色的毛密布葉鞘及苞片,花大,藍色。本研究觀察台灣的族群為一年生,生活在農田、山坡及海邊略有遮蔭處,染色體n = 11,葉鞘及苞片具白色毛 (或有少數紅色毛在葉鞘或小梗上),花小,淡紫色或藍色;因此認為台灣的種類應是 Co. benghalensis subsp. benghalensis。 本分類群葉為卵形,明顯寬於省產同屬的其他種類,花序頂生,花莖 (flowering shoots) 短縮,因此常見數個花序集生在枝端。此外,植株在近地面的節常會長出花莖,花莖會分支,上有鞘狀的葉子,花莖朝向地面或深入地面生長,頂端有一個花序,苞片明顯較小,其中的閉鎖花行自花受粉,果實及種子和開放花的沒有顯著差異。

Phenology: annual herbs, evergreen

Roors form: roots fibrous

Stems form: monomorphic stem

Monomorphic stems habit: procumbent

Rooting at nodes or not: rooting at nodes

Lateral shoots: not perforating

Phyllotaxis: spiral phyllotaxis

Leaves: petiole: sessile, subpetiolate

Leaves: shape (if dimorphic leaves, selected by rosette leaves): ovate

Leaves: apex: acute

Leaves: length (cm): 5-7.5

Leaves: width (cm): 3-4

Leaves indumentum: upper surface: pubscent

Prophyll: sheathing, apex acute

Inflorescence: take plance: terminal

Inflorescence: cincinnus

Bracts: shape: spathe infundibuliform, obliquely obtriangular

Corolla: zygomorphic: petal 3, base free, unequal

Flowers: bisexual, functionally male flowers

Sepals: sepal 3, unequal

Sepals: color: greenish

Sepals: base: the anticous 2, basally fused

Sepals: shape: the anticous 2 elliptic; the posticous one lanceolate

Sepals: indumentum: glabrous

Sepals: length (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 2-3

Sepals: width (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 1.4

Flowers: color: pink, purple, or blue

Petals: shape: dimorphic: the lateral petals 2 broadly rounded-ovate; the medial petal small

Petals: length (mm): 4

Petals: width (mm): 4-5

Stamens form: trimorphic: fertile stamens 3

Ovarys: shape: ellipsoid-globose

Ovarys: indumentum: glabrous

Ovarys: length (mm): 1

Styles: indumentum: glabrous

Styles: length (mm): 5.5

Capsules: dehiscence: dehiscent, the dorsal locule usually indehiscent

Capsules: shape: ellipsoid, ovoid

Capsules: trilocular

Capsules: indumentum: glabrous

Capsule locules seeds: number: 1-2

Capsules: length (mm): 4-5

Seeds: lengh (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 2.8-3.5

Seeds: width (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 1.9-2.2


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