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Flora of Taiwan | Family List | Commelinaceae | Commelina

Commelina auriculata Blume, Enum. Pl. Java. 2. 1827; Brown, J Linn. Soc. Bot. 36: 155. 1903; D. Y. Hong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12 (4): 482, 1974; K. C. Hsu in Li et al. Fl. Taiwan 5: 162. Pl. 1307. 1978; D. Y. Hong et al., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 13 (3): 132. 1997.

耳葉鴨跖草 (耳苞鴨跖草)

Commelina undulata auct. non R. Br. (1810): Henry, List Pl. Formos. 98. 1896. Commelina taiwaniana S. S. Ying, Colour. Illustr. Herbac. Pl. Taiwan, Vol. 1: 211. 1980. syn. nov.

Perennial herbs. Roots fibrous. Stems branched, prostrate at base, erect above, rooting at nodes, uncinate along a line decurrent from the sheath, otherwise nearly glabrous. Leaves sessile to subpetiolate; blade green with red stripe at margins, the midrib above usually white, lanceolate, 3-8 cm long, 0.9-1.8 cm wide, apex acuminate, base oblique, glabrous or densely puberulous, the midrib beneath uncinate and puberulous; sheath cylindrical, with red stripes, pilose at margins. Prophyll ca. 1-1.5 cm long, diam. 3 mm. Inflorescences terminal, lower cincinnus 2-3 floweres, upper cincinnus lacking or vestigical; spathe infundibuliform, obliquely obtriangular, the lower edge curved, falcate, ca. 1-2 cm long, veinlets conspicuous, pilose; peduncles 0.5-1 cm long; pedicels ca. 3-4 mm long. Flowers zygomorphic, dimorphic: in functionally male flowers the pistil abortive, ca. 2.3 mm long; in bisexual flowers the pistil ca. 9.2 mm long; sepals 3, greenish, persistent, elliptic, concave, unequal, the anticous 2, basally fused, elliptic, 4-4.7 mm long, 2.85-3 mm wide, glabrous; the posticous one lanceolate, 2.85-3 mm long, 1.25-2.2 mm wide; petals 3, free, unequal: the lateral petals 2, mauve to indigo, sometimes white, equal, planar, clawed, the limb broadly rounded-ovate, 5-7 mm long, 8-11 mm wide, apex obtuse, base cuneate-cordate, the claw 2.55-3.25 mm long; the medial petal white, small, 3-3.85 mm long, 1.25-1.85 mm wide, not clawed; fertile stamens 3, anticous, unequal, the lateral two, anther yellow, elliptic, sagittate, ca. 1.6-2 mm long, filament ca. 3.6-5.1 mm long, glabrous; the medial one, anther elliptic, hastate, ca. 2.4-2.8 mm long, filament ca. 3.25-3.6 mm long; staminodes 3, posticous, all alike, antherodes cruciate, ca 0.8 mm long, filament 2.5-3.2 mm long; ovary ellipsoid to globoid, ca. 1.3 mm long; style ca. 5-8 cm long. Capsules trilocular, 2-3 valved, valves subequal, lustrous, brown, globose, diam. ca. 4 mm, locules 1-seeded, seeds sometimes abortive,dorsal locule uaually indehiscent, glabrous. Seeds brown to black, reniform in outline, dorsiventral, ventral surfaceplanar, dorsal convex, ca. 2.8-3 mm long, 2-2.4 mm across, smooth, densely coverde with small farinose granules. Chromosome number: n = 30.

Taiwan: Formosa: Agincort, Yamamoto et al. 76 (TAI). Taipei: Danshui, Hsu 181 (TAI); Herpyngdoo, Keelung City, Liau 9 (TAI); Keelung city: Keelungyu. Along the trail, wet place, elev. ca. 0 m, Peng & Wang 14091 (HAST); Keelung City: Hopingdao, Y. J. Chen & Wang 884 (TNU); Keelung city: San-Sha Wan, elev. ca. 0 m, Peng & Lin 11058 (HAST); Keeling, Masamune s. n. Jul. 15, 1934 (TAI); Kungliao Hsiang: Peishihkengkou, between Longtung and Homei, along NE sea coast and by the hwy. At Hwy #2 milage sign 97-98 km. Common on lower slope of the coastal hill, elev. ca. 20 m, Peng et al. 14959 (HAST); Kungliao Hsiang: Fulung to Peikwan, Shen 217 (TNU); Paisawan to Chinshan, Kuo 8922 (TAI); Shihmen, Huang 247 (TAI); same loc., Peng 9339 (HAST); Sizangan, Nonaka & Mori s. n. Apr. 27, 1933 (TAI); Sozan, Shimada s. n. Oct. 1913 (TAIF); Tanshui, Kawakami & Shimada 4347 (TAIF); Taishan Hsiang: en route from Taishan to Linko, Taishanyen, Y. J. Chen 257, 397 (TNU). Taoyuan: Fuhsing District: en route from Paling to Kaoyi, elev. ca. 500-600 m, Peng 11038 (HAST); Provincial road #7, from Paling to Lofu, elev. ca. 400-600 m, Wang 10484 (TNU); Paling check point, Y. J. Chen et al. 535 (TNU). Nantou: Hoshe, Kou & Kao 3960 (TAI); Hui-Sun Experimental forest, Camp. Area, Y. J. Chen & Hsu 760, 761 (TNU); Lushan, elev. ca. 1100 m, Peng 6186 (HAST); insula Shushi in Nichigetsuton, Kudo & Sasaki 15535 (TAI); Tungpu, elev. ca. 1200-1250 m, Peng 8215 (HAST); Chunyang, Y. J. Chen 511 (TNU). Taichung: Kukuan: en route from Kukuan to Pahsienshan Forestry Recredtion Ared. Plant grew on roadside slope, elev. ca. 750-800 m, Leu 1516 (HAST). Chiayi: en route from Chiehtung Villa to Tienyunshan, elev. ca. 700-1300 m, Peng 8851 (HAST); Chuch District: Kwanghua Village, elev. ca. 1000 m, Peng 9948 (HAST); Tapu Hsiang: Watershed area of Tsengwen Dam, along a trail from bridge #4. Y. J. Chen et al. 807 (TNU). Tainan: Nanhsi Hsiang, Watershed area of Tsengwen Dam, along a trail from bridge #4. In densely vegetated valley with running streams or waterfalls, elev. ca. 90 m, Peng et al. 13386 (HAST). Kaohsiung: Banshoryo, Kawakami & Shimada s. n. Dec. 17, 1906 (TAIF); Chiasien Hsiang: Paolai. on the way to Shihtung hot spring, elev. ca. 620-580 m, Lu & Sang 706 (TNU); Chiasien Hsiang: Huangchin Waterfall. Provincial Rd. #20, between Paolai and Meishan, Y. J. Chen et al. 796 (TNU); Maolin Hsiang: Shanping Station, Liukuei Branch, Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, elev. ca. 750 m, Wang & Lin 801 (HAST); same loc., Summer Collection Team. Jul, 1986 (TNU); Liukuei to Meinung, Hsien Rd. #184, between Liukuei tunnel #2 and #3, Y. J. Chen et al. 790 (TNU); Taoyuan Hsiang, Paoshan Village, Chuyunshan Forest Road, 1300-1500 m, Wang et al. 10432 (TNU); Tengchu, Mt. Tsuyunshan, elev. ca. 800-1500 m, Ohashi 12946 (TAI). Pingtung: Chi-Chia logging tract, elev. ca. 300-600m, Wang & Yang 8922 (TNU); Chunjih Hsiang : On the way to Chachayalia Mountain . Secondary broadleaf forest. On exposed slope beside road, elev. ca. 410 m, Wang et al. 1073 (HAST); Horai-Tuyu, Kuso, ako, Matuda 970 (TAI); Liangshan Y. J. Chen & Hong 344 (TNU); Lilung shan, elev. ca. 500-600 m, Y. J. Chen 380, 381, 519, 835 (TNU); Litingshan. Y. J. Chen & Huang 781 (TNU); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Hong 321 (TNU); Kenting, Hsu 0323 (TAI); Kengting Park, Hsu & Hsu 4129 (TAI); same loc., Chaw 836 (HAST); Kenting: Mt. Tajienshihshan, elev. ca. 275 m, Peng 7147 (HAST); Kenting: Youth Activity Center at Chingwashih (Frog Rock), Peng 7116 (HAST); Mt. Kuanshan, ca. 5 km S. of Hengchun Town, Peng 7157 (HAST); Manchow District: ChiuPeng Village, elev. ca. 20 m, Peng 7825 (HAST); Manchou Hsiang, Chiupeng primary school, Wang & Lin 01997 (HAST, TAIF); Chionpeng, Hsu 0471 (TAI); Mancho: Nanjenshan. Around Nanjenhu (lake), in swampy area, elev. ca. 250-300 m, Peng 5498 (HAST); Maopitou, ca. 10 km S. of Hengchun Town., Peng 7185 (HAST); same loc., Y. J. Chen et al. 846 (TNU); inter Senpemseki et Garanbi, Suzuki 6006 (TAI); Santi Hsiang.Tewen, elev. ca. 900 m, Peng 6892 (HAST); Shiaoliuchin (Liukiusyo), Yang 2437 (TAI); same loc., Huang 9037 (TAI); same loc., Hosokawa 1632 (TAI); Szechunghi, Chang 2118 (TAI); Tahanshan check point. Mileage sign from 1.5 km to 2 km, Y. J. Chen et al. 521 (TNU); Tahanshan logging trial Mileage Sign ca. 21 km, Y. J. Chen et al. 828 (TNU); Tewen, Kao 1003 (TAI); Tsushe, Kao 9732 (TAI); Wutai District: en route from Wutai to Ali. On roadside, exposed rocky slope. elev. ca. 1000-1100 m, Peng 10192 (HAST); Kenting park: sheting. Y. J. Chen et al. 847 (TNU). Ilan: Kueishan Island, about 16 km, east of Tachi, Hsu 7218 (TAI); Toucheng: Chu-An, by Chu-An Elementary School. Sandy seacoast across a cemetery along Chu-An Road, elev. ca. 0 m, Peng et al. 13835 (HAST); same loc., No. 276 Chuan Rd., Y. J. Chen & Wang 874 (TNU). Hualien: Taroko National Park. en route from Taroko to Tienhsiang, elev. ca. 100-450 m, Peng et al. 12643 (HAST); Tienshang, elev. ca. 500-600 m, Hsu & Hsu 3757 (TAI). Taitung: Chihpenwnchienhou, Hsu & Hsu 4058 (TAI); Green Island (Lutao): Haisenping. Margin of coastal forest, elev. ca. 50 m, Peng 7579 (HAST); Kashoto, Nanryo-romakan, Kudo & Mori 380 (TAI); Kotosho (Lanhsu), Masamune s. n. May. 10, 1943 (TAI); same loc., Tateishi et al. 15131 (TAI); same loc., Kawakami s. n. Jun. 15, 1910 (TAI); Lanhsu, Hungtou to Tienchyr, Chang 2274 (TAI); Lanyu. Between Dongching and Yeyin, roadside, Peng 5210 (HAST); same loc., Peng & Hu 12682 (HAST); Lanyu (Orchid Island), between Kaiyuan Port & Airport, elev. ca. 10 m, Peng 7651 (HAST); Lanyu: Lantao Village. Lu 25243 (TAIF); Tawu Hsiang: Jia-lor-ban, elev. ca. 50m, et al. 836 (TNU, HAST); Tahwu to Tsushuipo, elev. ca. 20 m, Hsu 3415 (TAI); Taimali Hsiang: Nankeng, Chen 501 (HAST). Penghu: Chimetao, elev. ca. 50 m, Huang 7044 (TAI).

Japan, the Ryukyus, Indonesia, western Oceania. Taiwan, in semishady places, usually found in forest edge, river beds and seashores from 0-1500 m throughout the island. Flowering all the year round.

Hsu (1971) 認為本分類群和Co. undulata極為相似,區別點僅在於 Co. undulata果實三室皆開裂,染色體數目2n = 62 (Rao et al., 1960 ), Co. auriculata果實三室有一室不開裂,為固定的特徵,因此認為台灣早期記錄為Co. undulata應皆是Co. auriculata;Hong (1997) 記錄台灣同時存在Co. auriculata及Co. undulata,兩者的區別在於前者佛焰苞小,長僅1 cm,植株無毛,葉片長2-4 (6) cm;後者佛焰苞大,長2 cm或更大,植株被毛,少無毛,葉片長6 cm以上,兩者果實皆為二裂,其中一室不裂或三室全裂。本研究觀察台灣的族群,發現同一族群內佛焰苞的大小即有變化,長1-2 cm, 大部分為1.5 cm,葉子被毛情形不穩定,葉子長度的變化為3-8 cm,果實大部分全開裂,有些族群一室不開裂,所有特徵均介於Hong (1997) 所述兩種植物之間;另外,此兩種之染色體數目也非一定,如Co. undulata為n = 30, 45, 60, 2n = 56 (Rao et al., 1968);Co. auriculata的染色體為2n = 60 (Fujishima, 1982);2n = 58 (Zheng et al., 1989);2n = 34 (Hsu, 1971)。綜合形態學和細胞學資料,台灣的種類不論依據Hsu (1971)或Hong (1974, 1997)的觀點都很難界定。本研究比對Co. auriculata的原始描述,其形態特徵的描述都與台灣的種類相符,因此本研究採用此名。

Phenology: perennial herbs, evergreen

Roors form: roots fibrous

Stems form: monomorphic stem

Monomorphic stems habit: procumbent

Rooting at nodes or not: rooting at nodes

Lateral shoots: not perforating

Phyllotaxis: spiral phyllotaxis

Leaves: petiole: sessile, subpetiolate

Leaves: shape (if dimorphic leaves, selected by rosette leaves): lanceolate

Leaves: apex: acuminate

Leaves: length (cm): 3-8

Leaves: width (cm): 0.9-1.8

Leaves indumentum: upper surface: glabrous, pubscent

If upper surface glabrous, leaves indumentum: margin: glabrous, pubscent

Prophyll: sheathing, apex acute

Inflorescence: take plance: terminal

Inflorescence: cincinnus

Bracts: shape: spathe infundibuliform, obliquely obtriangular

Corolla: zygomorphic: petal 3, base free, unequal

Flowers: bisexual, functionally male flowers

Sepals: sepal 3, unequal

Sepals: color: greenish

Sepals: base: the anticous 2, basally fused

Sepals: shape: the anticous 2 elliptic; the posticous one lanceolate

Sepals: indumentum: glabrous

Sepals: length (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 4-4.7

Sepals: width (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 2.85-3

Flowers: color: white, pink, purple, or blue

Petals: shape: dimorphic: the lateral petals 2 broadly rounded-ovate; the medial petal small

Petals: length (mm): 5-7

Petals: width (mm): 8-11

Stamens form: trimorphic: fertile stamens 3

Ovarys: shape: ellipsoid, globoid

Ovarys: indumentum: glabrous

Ovarys: length (mm): 1.3

Styles: indumentum: glabrous

Styles: length (mm): 5-8

Capsules: dehiscence: dehiscent, the dorsal locule usually indehiscent

Capsules: shape: globose

Capsules: trilocular

Capsules: indumentum: glabrous

Capsule locules seeds: number: 1

Capsules: length (mm): 4

Seeds: lengh (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 2.8-3

Seeds: width (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 2-2.4


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