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Flora of Taiwan | Family List | Commelinaceae | Cyanotis

Cyanotis arachnoidea C. B. Clarke in DC, Monogr. Phanerog. 3: 250. 1881; Henry, List Pl. Formos. 99. 1896; Brown, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36: 157. 1903; Morton, J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 60: 194. 1967; Rao et al., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 60: 362. 1968; D. Y. Hong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12(4): 479. 1974; D. Y. Hong et al., Fl. Reipubl. Pop.


Cyanotis arachnoidea

Credit: HAST

Cyanotis vaga auct. non Schultes f. (1830): K. C. Hsu in Li et al. Fl. Taiwan 5: 168. pl. 1308. 1978.

Perennial deciduous herbs, green to purple, with more or less arachnose-pubescent. Roots fibrous, thickened, 2-3 mm across. Stems dimorphic, the vegetative shoot rosettes; the flowering shoots one to several per plant, erect or ascending, the longer stems somewhat decumbent basaily, unbranched or sparsely branched. Rosette leaves lorate, 8-15 cm long, 1-2 cm wide, apex acute, subglabrous to arachnoid-pubescent on both surfaces; cauline leaves shorter, 3-7 cm long, 0.7-1 cm wide. Sheath cylindrical, 0.5-1.5 cm long, densely covered with arachnose. Inflorescence terminal, a cincinnus enclosed in biseriate bracteoles, subtended by spathe-like bracts, 1-7 flowering branches from leaf axils; bract lorate-lanceolate, 1.2-3.7 cm long, 0.4-0.7 cm wide, upper surface nearly glabrous, arachnoid-pubescent beneath, ciliate at margin; bracteoles drepanoid, ca. 0.6-1 cm long, ca. 0.15-0.3 cm wide. Flowers bisexual, actinomorphic; sepals 3, base fused, greenish, persistent, lanceolate, 4-6 mm long, 1.3-2.2 mm wide, apex acuminate, hispid, base villous; petals 3, connate below into a tube, pink-purple, 6.7-8.4 mm long, 3-4.3 mm wide, apex acute; stamens 6, equal, anthers yellow, trapezoidal, ca. 1 mm long; filament inflated at tip, ca. 1 cm long, barbate, the hairs moniloform, purple, on the outside of the filament; ovary ellipsoid, 3-angled, ca. 2 mm long, 1-1.5 mm across, apex hispid; style inflated at tip, ca. 8 mm long, barbate, the hairs moniliform, purple, spiral. Capsules 3-valved, ellipsoid, ca. 3 mm long, ca. 2 mm across, locules 2-seeded, apex mucronulate, hispid. Seeds uniseriate, deltoid-trapezoidal in outline, ca 2 mm long, ca 1 mm across, rugose, scrobiculate, embryotega apical, hilum punctiform. Chromosome number: n =12.

Taichung: Chingshan, 900-1300 m, Y. J. Chen 858 (TNU); Chinlehsi, elev. ca. 1480 m, Wang 00857 (HAST, TAIF); Mt. Pahsiensha, Huang et al. 2768 (TAI); same loc., Sasaki s. n. May. 10, 1933 (TAI); Paikoutashan, Mori s. n. Sep. 1, 1909 (TAI, TAIF). Nantou: Baibara (Hsinsheng), Suzuki s. n. Jul. 20, 1926 (TAI); Jenai District: Chingjing Farm., elev. ca. 1750-1900 m, Peng 6095, 6119 (HAST); same loc., Hsu 131 (TAI); Chuayfong, elev. ca. 2000-2300 m, Hsu 11601 (TAI); Hosheh, elev. ca. 1150 m, Peng 6204 (HAST); Kuantaochi, Chang 2160 (TAI); Lushan, elev. ca. 1700-2100 m, Peng & Yen 11295 (HAST); same loc., elev. ca. 1100-1400 m, Peng 6171 (HAST); Lushan to tunyen, Kao s. n. Aug. 10, 1964 (TAI); same loc., Huang et al. 5674 (TAI); NCHU Hui-Sun Experimental forest, Tangkungpei, Camp. No. 5, Kuoh 4195 (TAI); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Hsu 744 (TNU); Nenkao Forest Experiment Station, Huang & Kao 6027 (TAI); Oiwake, Ku et al. s. n. Jul. 6, 1938 (TAI); Tsiufeng to Sungkang, Jeng 1876 (TAI); Tungpushan, elev. ca. 6500 ft., Kawakami & Sasaki 99 (TAI, TAIF); Tungpu to Loloku, elev. ca. 1300-1500 m, Huang et al. 5243 (TAI); same loc., Suzuki 13232 (TAI); Tungpu to Rainbow waterfall, elev. ca. 1120-1400 m, Huang 1587 (TNU); en route from Tungpu Hot Spring to Kuankao. On exposed roadside slope, elev. ca. 1450 m, Peng 8064 (HAST); same loc., Y. J. Chen 832 (TNU); Wushe, Kawakami & Mori 1177 (TAIF). Chiayi: en route from Chiayi City to Mt. Alishan, at Road Mileage Sign 60.5 km. Base of shade slope on road cut, grassy roadsid, elev. ca. 1600 m, Peng et al. 14324 (HAST); Kotaipo, Sasaki s. n. Oct. 1917 (TAIF); Mt. Niitaka, Kawakami & Mori 2325 (TAIF). Kaohsiung: Banshoryo, Mori s. n. Nov. 30, 1907 (TAIF); Chishan, Yamamoto & Mori 688 (TAI); Chiahsien hsiang: Paolai, on the way to shihtung hot spring, elev. ca. 620-580 m, Lu & Sang 704 (TNU); Chiasien Hsiang: Meishan Youth Activity Center, Y. J. Chen et al. 800 (TNU); en route from Shanping to Tengchuan, elev. ca. 750-1100 m, Wang et al. 9675 (TNU); same loc., Summer Collecting Team, s. n. Jul. 12, 1983; Jul. 1986 (TNU); Taoyuan Hsiang, Paoshan Village, Shihshan Forest Road, elev. ca. 1500 m, Wang et al. 10392 (TNU); Tengchih, elev. ca. 1550-1700 m, Huang et al. 13935 (TAI); same loc., elev. ca. 1500-1800 m, Ohashi 12843 (TAI); same loc., Chen 555 (HAST, TAIF); Yang 5128 (TAIF,HAST); same loc., Near Police office, Y. J. Chen & Hsu 896 (TNU). Pingtung: Akohuzi, Matuda s. n. Jul. 11, 1918 (TAIF); Chunjih Hsiang: Chichia Forest Road. Broadleaf forest, elev. ca. 760 m, Liu et al. 726 (HAST); same loc., elev. ca. 300-600 m, Wang & Yang 8916 (TNU, HAST); Chunjih Hsiang: along Tahan Forest Trail from Shuitiliao to Tahanshan, elev. ca. 800 m, Leu et al 552 (HAST,TNU); Liang shan, Liao 142 (PPI); Paiwan, Matuda 462 (TAI); Pingtung, Hosokawa s. n. Aug. 24, 1932 (TAI); Wutai District, en route from Wutai to Ali, elev. ca. 1000-1100 m, Peng 10212 (HAST); Tahanshan logging trial Mileage Sign ca. 21 km, Y. J. Chen et al. 831 (TNU). Hualien: Hungyeh hot spring, elev. ca. 200m, s. coll. s. n. Jul 3, 1988 (TNU). Taitung: Chipon-goe, Sasaki s. n. Oct. 13, 1934 (TAI).

Africa, India, Sri Lanka, Vietnan, Laos, Cambodia, China (Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxl, Guizhou, Yunnan), Taiwan, in central and southern part, scattered rocky outcrops in the forest from 200-2300 m. Flowering in May.-Dec., central in Jun.-Oct.

早期的分類學者 (Henry, 1896; Matsumura & Hayata, 1906; Kawakami, 1910; Sasaki, 1928; Masamune, 1936) 皆紀錄台灣產Cyanotis arachnoidea C. B. Clarke;Hsu (1971) 記錄Cyanotis cristata (L.) D. Don, Hsu (1978) 記錄Cyanotis vaga (Lour.) Roem. et Schult.,但Hsu先後對這兩分類群的描述是相同的。經仔細核對原始描述Cy. vaga植株具鱗莖,沒有基生葉,花序單生;Cy. cristata同樣沒有基生葉,聚繖花序成半圓形,明顯雞冠狀,小苞片寬達7 mm;Cy. arachnoide植株常被有蛛絲狀白毛,具有基生葉,沒有鱗莖,根粗,花序常數個簇生在一起,小苞片寬約1.5-3 mm,故依Hsu (1971, 1978) 的描述,台灣的種類應是Cyanotis arachnoidea C. B. Clarke;Hong (1997) 記錄台灣同時存在Cy. vaga和Cy. arachnoide,並認為依據營養器官Cy. vaga和Cy. arachnoide兩者截然可分,但從本研究的野外觀察及標本檢閱,台灣應僅存在Cy. arachnoide。

Phenology: perennial herbs, deciduous

Roors form: roots fibrous, fleshy

Stems form: monomorphic stem, dimorphic stem

Monomorphic stems habit: acaulescent

Dimorphic stems habit: vegetative shoot rosettes; flowering shoots erect or ascending

Rooting at nodes or not: rooting at nodes

Lateral shoots: not perforating

Phyllotaxis: spiral phyllotaxis

Leaves: petiole: sessile

Leaves: shape (if dimorphic leaves, selected by rosette leaves): lorate

Leaves: apex: acute

Leaves: length (cm): 8-15

Leaves: width (cm): 1-2

Leaves indumentum: upper surface: pubscent

Prophyll: sheathing, apex acute

Inflorescence: take plance: terminal

Inflorescence: capitate cincinus

Bracts: shape: lorate-laceolate, spathe-like

Corolla: actinomorphic: petal 3, base fused, equal

Flowers: bisexual

Sepals: sepal 3, subequal

Sepals: color: greenish

Sepals: base: base fused

Sepals: shape: lanceolate

Sepals: indumentum: hispid, base villous

Sepals: length (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 4-6

Sepals: width (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 1.3-2.2

Flowers: color: pink, purple, or blue

Petals: shape: connate below into a tube

Petals: length (mm): 6.7-8.4

Petals: width (mm): 3-4.3

Stamens form: monomorphic: fertile stamens 6

Ovarys: shape: ellipsoid

Ovarys: indumentum: apex hispid

Ovarys: length (mm): 2

Styles: indumentum: barbate

Styles: length (mm): 8

Capsules: dehiscence: dehiscent

Capsules: shape: ellipsoid

Capsules: trilocular

Capsules: indumentum: hispid

Capsule locules seeds: number: 2

Capsules: length (mm): 3

Seeds: lengh (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 2

Seeds: width (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 1


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