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Flora of Taiwan | Family List | Commelinaceae | Murdannia

Murdannia edulis (Stokes) Faden, Taxon. 29 (1): 77. 1980; D. Y. Hong et al., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 13 (3): 100. 1997.


Commelina edulis Stokes, Bot. Materia Med. 1: 184.1812. Commelina tuberosa auct. non L. (1753): Lour., Fl. Cochinch. 1: 40. 1790. Aneilema formosanum N. E. Br., J. Linn. Soc. Bot. 36: 152. 1903. Murdannia formosanum (N. E. Br.) K. S. Hsu comb. nov., in Li et al. Fl. Taiwan 5: 170. 1978. Aneilema loureirii Hance, J. Bot. 6: 250. 1868. Aneilema scapiflorum (Roxb.) Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 6:30. tab. 2073. 1853; C. B. Clarke in DC., Monogr. Phanerog. 3: 200. 1881. Commelina scapiflora Roxb.,Fl. Ind. 1: 175. 1820. Murdannia scapiflora (Roxb.) Royle, Illustr. Bot. Himal., tab. 95. fig. 3. 1839; D. Y. Hong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12 (4): 470, 1974.

Perennial deciduous herbs. Roots fibrous, thickened, 1.6-4.5 mm across, many with distal fusiform tubers, ca. 1.7-3 cm long, 0.5-0.9 cm across. Stems glabrous, dimorphic: the vegetative shoot acaulescent, erect; the flowering shoots one to several per plant, ascending, sharply bent. Rosette leaves oblanceolate, 12-25 cm long, 2-3.5 cm wide, apex acuminate, repand, upper surface glabrous or sparsely puberulous, lower puberulous, margins ciliate; cauline leaves lanceolate, 0.5-1.8 cm long, 0.3-0.7 cm wide; sheath puberulous, ciliate at margins. Prophyll sheathing, ca. 1.2 cm long, apex bifid. Inflorescence a terminal thyrse, composed of 1-4 cymes, 1-2 flowering shoots from axils of the cauline leaves; bracteoles persistent, deltoid, infundibuliform, perfoliate, ca. 2 mm long, ca. 2 mm wide; pedicels ca. 6 mm long. Flowers dimorphic: in functionally male flowers the style central and straight, the pistil vestigial, ca. 2.4 mm long, stamens symmetrically arranged; in bisexual flowers the style curved to one side and stamens to the opposite side; sepals lanceolate to elliptic, boat-shaped, apex reddish purple, otherwise greenish, equal, 5-6 mm long, ca. 3 mm wide, apex obtuse; petals suborbicular, concave, ca. 6 mm long, ca. 4.3 mm wide, purple, veins obscure in fresh material; fertile stamens 3, antesepalous, subequal, the anticous one longer, others shorter, anthers yellow, margins brown, narrowly elliptic-oblong, ca.1.5 mm long; pollen whitish; filaments 3.2-5 mm long, bearded, the hairs moniliform, purple, on the outside of the filament; staminodes 3, equal, antepetalous, antherodes trilobed, yellow, ca. 0.6 mm long, filaments ca. 2.2 mm long, bearded, on the outside of the filament; ovary ellipsoid in outline, acutely 3-angled, ca. 2 mm long; style thickened toward the base, ca. 3.2 mm long, tuberculatus. Capsule trilocular, 3-valved, ovate-oblong, 3-angled, 5-6 mm long, ca. 3 mm across, locules 4-seeded, apex mucronulate. Seed brown, dimorphic: seeds in the end of the capsule deltoid in outline, others trapezoidal, 1.3-2 mm long, 1.3-1.5 mm across, dorsiventral, dorsal surface slightly convex, ventral carinate, scrobiculate, embryotega dorsal, hilum punctiform. Chromosome number: n = 21.

Chiayi: Tapu Hsiang: Watershed area of Tsengwen Dam, along a trail from bridge #4, Y. J. Chen et al. 812 (TNU). Tainan: Nanhsi Hsiang: watershed area of Tsengwen Dam, along a trail from the bridge #4, elev. ca. 150 m, Leu & Wang 2040 (HAST); en route from Yuching to Neikeng, elev. ca. 100-150 m, Chen 534 (HAST). Kaohsiung: Chiahsienpu, Sasaki & Hirakawa s. n. Jun. 20, 1930 (TAI); Liukuei Hsiang: Fuhsing (Kouliao), Village at mountain foot, elev. ca. 150-250 m, Chen 612 (HAST); Liukuei to Meinung, dry rocky riverbed, elev. ca. 200 m, Chen & Wang 330 (HAST); Liukuei to Meinung, Hsien Rd. #184, between Liukuei tunnel #2 and #3, Y. J. Chen et al. 795 (TNU); Paolai. The plant was presented by Mr. I-Fa Wang, elev. ca. 400 m, Peng 11177 (HAST). Pingtung: Ako, Soma s. n. Aug. 1912 (TAI); same loc., Soma s. n. Jul. 1912 (TAI); Bankinsing, Henry 872 (TAI); Litingshan, Huang et al. 16136 (TAI); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Huang 778 (TNU).

India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Burma, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Vietnam, China ( Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxi), Philippines, Java, Kangeen Is., flores, Timor, New Guinea. Taiwan, in southern part, usually found in semishady places snd bluffs of valley. Flowering in Spr.- Nov., central in Jul.- Oct.

N. E. Brown (1903) 將本種植物發表為Aneilema formosanum;Hsu (1978) 認為本種植物為台灣特有種,並新組合為M. formosanum;Faden (1980) 則將名稱訂正為廣泛分布於亞洲南部的M. edulis。本種植物葉大,似鳳梨葉,葉邊緣常成波浪狀,根粗,且末端常有紡錘狀膨大,為落葉性植物,冬天以粗壯的根越冬,雌蕊花柱表面散生疣狀的小突起,雄蕊有一枚特別長,位於雌蕊背後,蒴果每室有4顆種子。Hsu (1978) 描述本種植物葉寬約1 cm,而本研究所觀察的族群葉寬皆在2 cm以上。

Phenology: perennial herbs, deciduous

Roors form: roots fibrous, fleshy

Stems form: monomorphic stem, dimorphic stem

Monomorphic stems habit: acaulescent

Dimorphic stems habit: vegetative shoot acaulescent; flowering shoots ascending

Rooting at nodes or not: absent

Lateral shoots: not perforating

Phyllotaxis: spiral phyllotaxis

Leaves: petiole: sessile

Leaves: shape (if dimorphic leaves, selected by rosette leaves): oblanceolate

Leaves: apex: acuminate

Leaves: length (cm): 12-25

Leaves: width (cm): 2-3.5

Leaves indumentum: upper surface: glabrous, pubscent

If upper surface glabrous, leaves indumentum: margin: pubscent

Prophyll: sheathing, apex bifid

Inflorescence: take plance: terminal

Inflorescence: thyrse

Bracts: shape: triangular

Corolla: actinomorphic: petal 3, base free, equal or subequal

Flowers: bisexual, functionally male flowers

Sepals: sepal 3, equal

Sepals: color: greenish

Sepals: base: free

Sepals: shape: lanceolate, elliptic

Sepals: indumentum: glabrous

Sepals: length (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 5-6

Sepals: width (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 3

Flowers: color: pink, purple, or blue

Petals: shape: suborbicular

Petals: length (mm): 6

Petals: width (mm): 4.3

Stamens form: dimorphic: fertile stamens 3

Ovarys: shape: ellipsoid

Ovarys: indumentum: glabrous

Ovarys: length (mm): 2

Styles: indumentum: tuberculatus

Styles: length (mm): 3.2

Capsules: dehiscence: dehiscent

Capsules: shape: ovate-oblong

Capsules: trilocular

Capsules: indumentum: glabrous

Capsule locules seeds: number: 4

Capsules: length (mm): 5-6

Seeds: lengh (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 1.3-2

Seeds: width (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 1.3-1.5


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