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Flora of Taiwan | Family List | Commelinaceae | Murdannia

Murdannia loriformis (Hassk.) Rolla Rao et Kammathy, Bull. Bot. Surv. Ind. 3: 393. 1961; Rao, Not. Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 25: 184. 1967; D. Y. Hong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12 (4): 473, 1974; D. Y. Hong et al., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 13 (3): 108. pl. 27. 1997.


Aneilema loriformis Hassk, in Miquel, Pl. Jungh. 143. 1852.

Perennial or annual herbs, green to puniceus, sometimes with stolons. Roots fibrous, sometimes thickened, to 1.8 mm across. Stems dimorphic: the vegetative shoot acaulescent, erect; the flowering shoots one to several per plant, ascending, the longer stems somewhat decumbent basely, unbranched or sparsely branched. Rosette leaves linear, 8-40 cm long, ca. 7 mm wide, apex acuminate, glabrous; cauline leaves linear to lanceolate, 1.3-8 cm long, 0.4-0.8 cm wide; sheath puberulent, ciliate at margins. Prophyll sheathing, 1-1.2 cm long, apex bifid. Inflorescence terminal, consisting of a single cincinnus, 1-2 flowering shoots from axils of the cauline leaves; bracts ovate 4.4-6.3 mm long, 3.2-4.4 wide; bracteoles ovate, ca. 3.6-4.6 mm long, ca. 2-3 mm wide, fugacious; pedicels 3-4 mm long. Flowers dimorphic: in functionally male flowers the style central and straight, the pistil vestigial, ca. 1.2 mm long, stamens symmetrically arranged; in bisexual flowers the style curved to one side and stamens to the opposite side; sepals lanceolate, boat-shaped, greenish, equal, ca. 3.5-4 mm long, ca. 2.3 mm wide, apex obtuse; petals suborbicular or obovate, 4.2-6.2 mm long, 3.2-6.3 mm wide, purplish to purple, veins obscure in fresh material, fertile stamens 2, equal, antesepalous, anthers purple, narrowly elliptic-oblong, ca. 1 mm long; pollen whitish; filaments ca. 2.5-3.5 mm long, bearded, the hairs moniliform, white or purplish; staminodes 4, unequal, one antesepalous, the anther vestigial, the filament ca. 2.5 mm long, bearded; the others antepetalous, equal, antherodes trilobed, white to yellow, ca. 0.65 mm long, filaments 1.8-2.4 mm long, glabrous or sometimes with hairs; ovary ellipsoid in outline, acutely 3-angled, ca. 1.4 mm long; style thickened toward the base, ca. 4 mm long, glabrous. Capsule trilocular, 3-valved, ellipsoid, 3-angled, 4-5 mm long, locules 2-seeded,apex mucronulate. Seed brown, deltoid in outline, 1.4-2.3 mm long, 1-1.4 mm wide, apex acute, base truncate, dorsiventral, dorsal surface convex, ventral carinate, radially or reticulately fasciate with tomentum, embryotega semilateral, hilum linear. Chromosome number: n = 20.

Taiwan: Formosa, Faurie 8195 (TAI). Taipei: Aoti, elev. ca. 0-20 m, Huang 2924 (TAI); Betan (Pitan), Simizu 2094 (TAI); Chinshan, seacoast, Huang s. n. May. 10, 1968 (TAI); same loc., Kuoh 1437 (TAI); Mt. Horan, Shimada s. n. Oct. 20, 1906 (TAIF); Horanzan, Suzuki s. n. Sep. 28, 1928 (TAI); Hsiaoketou, elev. ca. 300 m, Hung 95 (TNU); en route from Juifang to Shuanghsi, elev. ca. 220 m, Leu et al. 715 (TNU, HAST); same loc., Y. J. Chen et al 300 (TNU); en route from Juifang to Chiufen, Y. J. Chen et al 302 (TNU); Juifang Town: Szuchiaoting. Shen 213 (TNU); Keelung City: Hsingshan Dam, elev. ca. 100 m, Huang & Yang 3772 (TAI); Keelung City: Ho-ping-dao, Peng 4834 (HAST); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Wang 882 (TNU); Keelung City: Keelungyu, elev. ca. 0 m, Peng & Wang 14206 (HAST); Kirigan (Chili), Peitou, Masamune 2609 (TAI); Kongliao District, elev. ca. 0-20 m, Peng 7731 (HAST); Kungliao to Tali (Ilan Hsien), Tsaoling trail, Y. J. Chen 444 (TNU); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Wang 905 (TNU); Mt. Kuanying, Hsu 9586 (TAI); Kungliao Hsiang: Peishihkengkou, between Longtung and Homei, along NE sea coast and by the hwy. At Hwy #2 milage sign 97-98 km, elev. ca. 20 m, Peng et al. 14958 (HAST); Nankang. On lawn in front of the Academic Activity Center in the campus of the Acaedmia Sinica, elev. ca. 20 m, Peng 15218 (HAST); same loc., Wang & Hsu. 652 (HAST); Nankangshan, Jeng 888 (TAI); campus of National Taiwan University, on lawn in traffic islands, elev. ca. 0-20 m, Peng 14817 (HAST); same loc., Hsu 9566 (TAI); campus of National Taiwan Normal University, Y. J. Chen 304 (TNU); Lutzutan, Jeng 526 (TAI); Pinglin Hsiang: Talin village, Taiyuku, mt. foot of Taitiaoling, by a small creek Margin of Cunninghamia plantation. By drainage ditch, elev. ca. 330 m, Peng et al. 14698 (HAST); Pinglin: Huangchupiliao, Y. J. Chen et al. 279 (TNU); Pinghsi Hsiang: Hsien Road #106, at mileage sign 77 km; en route from Shihfenliao to Juifang. Scattered broadleaf forest by the road, elev. ca. 200-300 m, Hsiao et al. 1308 (HAST); Pinghsi, Shen 245 (TNU); Rokutyori, Yamamoto & Suzuki Feb. 23, 1929 (TAI); Senjozan, Suzuki 4409 (TAI); same loc., Suzuki 5409 (TAI); Shihting District: Leikungpo, Hsiaoketou, elev. ca. 350-450 m, Peng & Hu 12300 (HAST); Shinpeitou, Kao k3765 (TAI); Shihting District: en route to Mt. Huangtitienshan, elev. ca. 440 m, Peng 8577, 8578, 8579 (HAST); same loc., elev. ca. 250 m, Peng et al. 12887 (HAST); Shuhtin, Chuang & Kao 4577 (TAI); Sinten, Kudo et al. 216 (TAI); Sinten: Yinhotung, Y. J. Chen & Shen 271, 272 (TNU); Sitisei Gun Hokuto, Murakami 44(TAI); Sudin, Lin 14175 (TAI); Suigenchi, Suzuki s. n. May. 12, 1929 (TAI); same loc., Suzuki s. n. Apr. 17, 1929 (TAI); Sushowshan near Sanchangli, Tu 4452 (TAI); Taipei, Sasaki s. n. Dec. 1918 (TAIF); same loc., Chern 36 (TAI), Peng et al. 15397 (HAST); Taishan Hsiang: en route from Taishan to Linko, Taishanyen, Y. J. Chen 254, 255, 258 (TNU); Tanpya, Urai, Suzuki 11699 (TAI); Tanshui: Niucheliao, elev. ca. 0 m, Peng & Yen 10262 (HAST); Taipei Botanical Garden, elev. ca. 10 m, Chiang 296 (TAIF); Taito-montilous, Yamamoto 291 (TAI); Tatunshan to Hsinpeitou, Kuo 9031 (TAI); Tutanshan, Kao 10206 (TAI); Tatungshan to Kueishanlu, elev. ca. 200-700 m, Hsu 6425A (TAI); Tyohokuto, Simada SH973 (TAI); Wantan, Simizu 3155 (TAI); same loc., Simizu 3154 (TAI); Yangmingshan, Chienshan Park. Very common, often in shady habitat or by a running stream, elev. ca. 420 m, Peng & Leu 13509 (HAST); Yangmingshan to Chishingshan, Hsu 3139 (TAI); Yangmingshan: Erhtzuping. Y. J. Chen 818 (TNU); Yangmingshan: Chungshan Building, Y. J. Chen 837 (TNU). Taoyuan: Chuwei, Lin 732 (TAI); Nankan Toen, Suzuki 608 (TAI); Provincial road #7, from Paling to Lofu, elev. ca. 400-600 m, Wang 10483 (TNU); Pachangli, elev. ca. 50-150 m, Peng 11128 (HAST); Toen, Masamune 686 (TAI). Hsinchu: Komo Sintiku-syn, Kudo & Suzuki 132 (TAI); Lienhuashih, on sandy soil along border of a pine forest, elev. ca. 50-150 m, Peng 11534 (HAST); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Shen 400 (TNU); Hukou Hsiang: Hukou, Y. J. Chen & Chiu 902 (TNU). Miaoli: between Houlong & Tunghsiao, 18km N of Tunghsiao. By a brick factory, elev. ca. 0-50m, Peng & Chen 11592 (HAST); Shihtan Hsiang: Yunghsing. Paddy banks; abundant, elev. ca. 180 m, Peng 15043 (HAST). Taichung: Getubi, Suzuki 6768 (TAI); Taityu, Tosei Experimental Forest Simizu s. n. Jan. 10, 1935 (TAI). Nantou: Baibara (Mayubara), Sasaki & Suzuki s. n. Sep. 27, 1926 (TAI); in litore occidentale laci Gettan, Kudo & Sasaki 15325 (TAI); inter Gojio et Rengechi, Yamamoto & Mori s. n. Nov. 3, 1932 (TAI); Hosheh. In dense grassy field, elev. ca. 1150 m, Peng 6205 (HAST); Lienhuachih, Ku s. n. Nov. 2, 1935 (TAI); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Hsu 734 (TNU); Luku Hsiang: Fenghuangku. On the way from Fenghuang Hostel to Fnghuang Waterfall. Secondary broadleaf forest, elev. ca. 600-800 m, Wang et al. 121 (HAST, TNU); Musya Santinozyo Onsen, Masamune 2100 (TAI); Taityu-Tyuryosho (Tyuryo), Mori 8005 (TAI); same loc., Yamamoto & Suzuki 865 (TAI). Yunlin: Yunlin, Y. J. Chen & Li 866 (TNU). Chiayi: en route from Chiehtung Villa to Tienyunshan, elev. ca. 700-1300 m, Peng 8845 (HAST); Weed in Campus of Taiwan Agiculture Research Institute, elev. ca. 0 m, Peng 10097 (HAST). Tainan: Chuwei, Yuching, Kao 6615 (TAI); Mato Meidi-Seito, Suzuki & Kamikoti s. n. Jul. 30, 1934 (TAI). Kaohsiung: Liukuei District: between Liukuei Tunnel #2 and #3, by Laonung River. On precipitous, rocky sides of a very narrow (ca. 2m across) valley, elev. ca. 180 m, Peng & Chen 11209 (HAST); Maoling, Y. J. Chen & Hong 429 (TNU); Shanping. Summer Collection Team, Jul. 1986 (TNU). Pingtung: Machia, Huang & Kao 7502 (TAI); Nanjenshan, elev. ca. 340 m, Yang 1809 (TAI); same loc., Koyama s. n. Feb. 25, 1980 (TAI); Nanjenshan to ChioPeng, elev. ca. 50-400 m, Ohashi 14585 (TAI). Ilan: Chiaohsi Hsiang: seashore of Chuan, No. 276 Chuan Rd., Y. J. Chen & Wang 876 (TNU); Fulung, Hsu 9297 (TAI); Insl. Kizan, Masamune & Suzuki s. n. Jul. 3, 1932 (TAI); inter Kankei et Koro, Suzuki 5870 (TAI); Kubabo, Suzuki 6120 (TAI); Sankyaku, Simizu 15 (TAI); inter Sikikun et Doba, Yamamoto s. n. Aug.-Sep. 1925 (TAI); Yuanshan Hsiang: Shuanglienpei (lake.), elev. ca. 550 m, Leu et al. 753 (HAST). Hualien: Chohsi Hsiang: Yushan National Park, Batungguan trail, en route from an-an to Huangma along the Lakulaku river valley. Broadleaf forest elv. 450-665 m, Lin et al. 66 (HAST, TNU), Lin et al. 68 (HAST); Hungyeh, elev. ca. 200 m, Huang & Huang 14112 (TAI); Liyutan. (a lake near Huanlien City), Y. J. Chen & Shen 435 (TNU); Wanjung District: Hungyeh Village: Hungyeh Hot Spring, along open trail, elev. ca. 200-400 m, Peng & Chen 11625 (HAST); same loc., s. coll. s. n. Jul 3, 1988 (TNU); Kwarenko, Suzuki 5374 (TAI); Taikanko Bentenjima. In Mont. Taito, Yamamoto 283 (TAI); Takangkou to Shihtiwan, elev. ca. 0-50 m, Tateishi 16003 (TAI); Tamazato, Zuepei, elev. ca. 180-250 m, Tateishi 15612 (TAI). Taitung: Isl. Kasyoto, Sata s. n. Apr. 16, 1932 (TAI); Isl. Kotosyo, Sasaki s. n. Nov. 3, 1934 (TAI); Lanhsu, Wangnanfeng, Chang 2267 (TAI); Lanhsu, Hongtoutsun to Wangnanfeng, Kuoh 4896 (TAI); Mt. Hongtou, Botel Tobago, Kao 10815 (TAI); Lanyu. On the way from Yeh-yu villa. to Mt. Hungtou, elev. ca. 30 m, Lu et al. 967 (TNU); Lanyu (Orchid Island), elev. ca. 0-100 m, Peng 7661 (HAST); Lanyu. en route from Yujenhsi (Fisherman River) to Hungtoushan (Red-head Mt.). Broadleaf forest, elev. ca. 190 m, Peng 6691 (HAST); Lanyu (Orchid Island): Yuzentsuen (Fisherman's Village). Weeds by Taro plantation, associated with Commelina, elev. ca. 10 m, Peng 7657 (HAST); Orchid Island, Moo 2363 (TAI); same loc., Wu 1649 (TAI); same loc., Sasaki s. n. May. 5, 1926 (TAI); same loc., Sasaki s. n. Apr. 15, 1907 (TAI); Pinan, Suzuki 5437 (TAI); same loc., Suzuki 5429 (TAI); Taito-montibus, Yamamoto 290 (TAI); same loc., Yamamoto s. n. Aug. 24, 1929 (TAI).

India, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Thailand, China (Xizang, Guizhou, Sichuan, Yunnan, Guangxi, Hainan, Guangdong, Hunan, Jiangxi, Anhui, Zhejiang, Fujian, Hongkong), Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, the Ryukyus. Taiwan, in open sunny places at low altitude throughout the islands. Flowering all the year round.

本種植物廣泛分布於全省低海拔地區,然而早期名錄都沒有記載,直到Hong (1974, 1997) 才首度記錄。本研究檢閱早期採集的標本中即有本種植物,但常被錯誤鑑定為M. angustifolium、M. nudiflora及M. simplex,其中M. angustifolium葉極狹窄 (寬小於5 mm),根粗;M. nudiflora植株纖細,沒有基生葉,種子有窩孔;M. simplex根粗,具走莖,密錐花序。比較這些形態上的差異,應可加以區別。 本種植物在外形上有一些變異,約可分為三群 (圖49): 1. 植株分支傾伏 (decumbent),節上生根,緊抓地面,葉較短且窄 (葉長約8-28cm),花瓣為倒卵形,花白色—淡紫色,分布在潮濕的開闊地 (圖49A)。 2. 植株分支傾上 (ascending),有時可見走莖,植株基部常有一個似球莖的莖,花瓣近乎圓形,花紫色,分布在沼澤地 (圖49B)。 3. 植株似第二群,但葉較長可達40 m,根較粗直徑可達1.5 mm,生長在海岸邊 (圖49C)。 但仔細比較這三群之染色體數目、花粉及種子形態並沒有發現顯著差異,因此認為這些差異仍為種內的變異。

Phenology: perennial herbs, evergreen

Roors form: roots fibrous

Stems form: monomorphic stem, dimorphic stem

Monomorphic stems habit: acaulescent

Dimorphic stems habit: vegetative shoot acaulescent; flowering shoots ascending

Rooting at nodes or not: rooting at nodes

Lateral shoots: not perforating

Phyllotaxis: spiral phyllotaxis

Leaves: petiole: sessile

Leaves: shape (if dimorphic leaves, selected by rosette leaves): linear

Leaves: apex: acuminate

Leaves: length (cm): 8-40

Leaves: width (cm): 0.7

Leaves indumentum: upper surface: glabrous

If upper surface glabrous, leaves indumentum: margin: glabrous

Prophyll: sheathing, apex bifid

Inflorescence: take plance: terminal

Inflorescence: rhipidium

Bracts: shape: ovate

Corolla: actinomorphic: petal 3, base free, equal or subequal

Flowers: bisexual, functionally male flowers

Sepals: sepal 3, equal

Sepals: color: greenish

Sepals: base: free

Sepals: shape: lanceolate

Sepals: indumentum: glabrous

Sepals: length (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 3.5-4

Sepals: width (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 2.3

Flowers: color: pink, purple, or blue

Petals: shape: obovate, suborbicular

Petals: length (mm): 4.2-6.2

Petals: width (mm): 3.2-6.3

Stamens form: trimorphic: fertile stamens 2

Ovarys: shape: ellipsoid, globoid

Ovarys: indumentum: glabrous

Ovarys: length (mm): 1.4

Styles: indumentum: glabrous

Styles: length (mm): 4

Capsules: dehiscence: dehiscent, indehiscent

Capsules: shape: ellipsoid

Capsules: trilocular

Capsules: indumentum: glabrous

Capsule locules seeds: number: 2

Capsules: length (mm): 4-5

Seeds: lengh (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 1.4-2.3

Seeds: width (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 1-1.4


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