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Flora of Taiwan | Family List | Commelinaceae | Pollia

Pollia miranda (Levl.) Hara, J. Jap. Bot. 59: 182. 1984; D. Y. Hong et al., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 13 (3): 87. pl. 23. 1997.

小杜若 (川杜若)

Tovaria miranda Lev. In Mem. Pont. Accad. Rom. Nuovi Lincei 23: 361. 1905. Pollia japonica auct. non. Thunb. (1784): Matsumura, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 12: 1. 1898. Pollia japonica var. minor Hayata ex Masamune, Sci. Rep. Kanazawa Univ. 5: 96. 1957. Pollia minor Honda, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 45: 2. 1931; K. C. Hsu in Li et al. Fl. Taiwan 5: 174. pl. 1311. 1978. Pollia zollingeri auct. non C. B. Clarke (1881): Brown, J. Linn. Soc. 36: 159. 1903. Pollia omeiensis Hong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12 (4): 466. pl. 90. 1974.

Perennial herbs, 30-62 cm tall. Roots fibrous. Stems glabrous or sparse uncinate along a line decurrent from the sheath. Leaves subpetiolate, flexuosus; blade reduced towards inflorescence, lanceolate, 11-14 cm long, 2-3 cm wide, apex acuminate, base attenuate, glabrous, slightly uncinate in the vein axils; sheaths cylindrical, overlapping, densely uncinate. Inflorescence a terminal thyrse; peduncle densely covered with short uncinate hairs; bracts lanceolate, 5-7 mm long, 1-2 mm wide, uncinate; bracteoles deltoid, infundibuliform, perfoliate, ca. 2 mm wide, glabrous; pedicel ca. 2 mm long, glabrous. Flowers actinomorphic, dimorphic: in functionally male flowers the pistil abortive, ca. 1.3 mm long; in bisexual flowers the pistil ca. 6.5 mm long; sepals 3, free, white, persistent, elliptic, concave, 3.8-4.5 mm long, 2.3-2.55 mm wide, apex obtuse, glabrous; petals 3, white, equal, obovate, 4-4.85 mm long, 2.4-3 mm wide, apex obtuse, base cuneate; stamens 6, fertile, subequal, anthers yellow, elliptic, ca. 1 mm long; filaments 3.4-4 mm long; ovary globose, ca. 1.3 mm long, glabrous; style ca. 5 mm long. Capsules indehiscent, trilocular, indigo, metallic, globose, diam. ca. 4 mm, locules 5-7 seeded. Seeds biseriate, polygonal, dorsiventral, 1-1.5 mm long, ca. 1.5 mm wide, ca. 0.6 mm thick, scrobiculate, embryotega dorsal, sunken, hilum punctiform. Chromosome number: n = 16.

Taipei: Keelung City: Keelungyu, elev. ca. 0 m, Peng & Wang 14222, 14236 (HAST); Kungliao to Tali (Ilan Hsien), Tsaoling trail, Y. J. Chen 445 (TNU); Kuaimushan: the first hut for workers, elev. ca. 850 m, Chen et al. 3 (HAST); Kuanyinshan, Wang 2780 (TAI); Lelekuo, Y. J. Chen & Wang 862 (TNU); Pinglin: Huangchupiliao, Y. J. Chen et al 281 (TNU); Shamaoshan, Shimada s. n. Dec. 13, 1914 (TAI, TAIF); Sanhsia, elev. ca. 450 m, Wang 3250 (TAI); Sanhsia: Peichatienshan, en route from mountain entrance to shelter. On somewhate exposed forest floor beside trail, elev. ca. 520-600 m, Liao et al. 345 (HAST, TNU); Mt. Peichatienshan, elev. ca. 820 m, Peng 7414 (HAST); Sanhsia Town: Tungman Mountain Hiking Trail; from Tungyenshan Forest Recreation Area to Peichatienshan, elev. ca. 900-1000 m, Wang et al. 495 (HAST); Sanhsia: Trail from entrance of Tungyenshan Forest Recreation Area to summit of Tungyenshan. Broadleaf forest, elev. ca. 1100-1200 m, Lin & Liu 88 (HAST); Shihting Hsiang: Huang-ti-tien, elev. ca. 300-500 m, Chang s. n. Jun. 3 1996 (TNU); same loc., Y. J. Chen et al. 249 (TNU); Shihting District: Leikungpo, Hsiaoketou, elev. ca. 350-450 m, Peng et al. 11967 (HAST); Shoeiguaninshan, Shie 1130 (TAIF); in silvis monte endan-yama, Taihoku-syo, Suzuki 7450 (TAI); Taipei, Sasaki s. n. Aug. 1909 (TAIF); Tsaikungkengshan, Wu 896 (TAIF, TNU); Wulai, elev. ca. 75-175 m, Peng 8352, 10014 (HAST); same loc., Wang s. n. May, 12 1989 (TNU); Wulai Hsiang: Fushan Village, Happen Natural Preserved Area, Y. J. Chen & Wang 870 (TNU); same loc., Tang 74 (TAI); Wulai Hsiang: Neitung Forest Recreation area, Y. J. Chen et al 290, 291 (TNU); Wulai: Tunghou, en route from Mountain control station to guest house. Broadleaf forest. Moist soil on shaded roadside ditch, elev. ca. 400 m, Liao et al. 432 (HAST, TNU); Wulai, between Wulai Station and Wawagu, Peng 4976 (HAST); Yangmingshan National Park: Tatunshan, en route from Parking Lot of The Tatun Nature Park to Erhtzuping, Y. J. Chen & Huang 245, 246 (TNU); Yangmingshan National Park, forest west of Sulphur volcano, elev. ca. 900 m, Panero 6411 (HAST); Yangmingshan National Park, Tatunshan natural park, Y. J. Chen & Lin 643 (TNU). Taoyuan: Fuhsing Hsiang: on road 7, between Luofu and Kaopo, at Lahao Bridge near Tuanhui, milage sign km 25-26. Moist slope by a small watershed, elev. ca. 450 m, Peng et al. 14667 (HAST); Provincial road #7, Chilan, elev. a. 400-500 , Wang 10520 (TNU); Kappanzan, Kawakami s. n. May. 1915 (TAIF); Paleng, Lu 12757 (TAIF); en trail from Paling to Fushan,Y. J. Chen et al. 635 (TNU). Hsinchu: Hsinchu, Sasaki s. n. Sep. 9, 1907 (TAI). Miaoli: inter Koro et Sankyaku, Suzuki 5906 (TAI); Shihtan Hsiang: en route from Shihtan to Tatungshih: Tali Coal mine. Broadleaf forestmargin, trail above a running stream, slope base, by drainage ditch, elev. ca. 600 m, Peng 15068 (HAST,TNU); Mt. Sito (Shihtoushan), Lou s. n. Oct. 8, 1939 (TAI); Syokusuiko, Kawakami & Sasaki s. n. May. 4, 1908 (TAIF); Szumahsien logging trail, Y. J. Chen 840 (TNU). Nantou: Baibara Hori, Suzuki s. n. Jul. 20, 1926 (TAI); Chitou, elev. ca. 1300 m, Huang 2440 (TAI); same loc., Peng 5325, 6982 (HAST), Kuo et al. 69 (TNU); Luku Hsiang: Chito; Bird-watchers' trail, on the left of the road that leaves Gingko plantation to Giant Tree, broad leaved forest. Growing by the trail, elev. ca. 1200-1400 m, Wang & Lin 1228 (HAST); Luku Hsiang: Chitou Exp't Forest of NTU: Yushuikeng, "Plant SpecimenGarden" by Provincil Road # 151, near milage sign 14 km. Edge of a bamboo grove, elev. ca. 1200 m, Peng 15005 (HAST); Hsinyi District: Shenmu. Along trails of secondary forest, elev. ca. 1350-1550 m, Peng & Chen 10976 (HAST); Fenghuangshan, Huang 5985 (TAI); Luku Hsiang: Fenghuangku. On the way from Fenghuang Hostel to Fenghuang Waterfall. Secondary broadleaf forest, elev. ca. 600-800 m, Wang et al. 119 (HAST); Lushan, elev. ca. 1370 m, Peng 6173 (HAST); same loc., Y. J. Chen 508 (TNU); Niitakagun Hosya Dokuritusan, Suzuki s. n. Oct. 14, 1935 (TAI); Rengechi, Hibino & Suzuki s. n. Jul. 18,1936 (TAI); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Hsu 720 (TNU); Tungpu to Hoshe, near the giant tree, Huang 3442 (TNU); Wushe: Pihu, elev. ca. 1100 m, Y. J. Chen 465 (TNU). Chiayi: Fenchihu to Dadonshan, elev. ca. 1500 m, Lin et al. 102 (TNU, HAST); Fenchihu to Tianchian, elev. ca. 1300-1405 m, Wang et al. 6231 (TNU); same loc., Y. J. Chen & Shen 821 (TNU); same loc., 18 lohan cave, Y. J. Chen & Shen 825 (TNU); Lair-Jir, elev. ca. 900-1000 m, Wang et al. 6950 (TNU); Tapu Hsiang : Yentzuyai, near Tsengwen Reservoir, elev. ca. 300 m, Chen 325, 331, 334 (HAST). Tainan: Tungshan District, Mt. Kantoushan, Hsienkungmiao (Temple), elev. ca. 550-690 m, Peng 7080 (HAST). Kaohsiung: Senping, Kuoh 4012 (TAI); Shanping. Summer Collection Team s. n. Jul. 1986 (TNU); Taoyuan Hsiang, Paoshan Village, Chuyunshan Forest Trail: en route from Shelter to the Yunshan Bridge, elev. ca. 740 m, Ho et al. 914 (HAST); Taoyuan Hsiang, Paoshan Village, Shihshan Forest Road, elev. ca. 1500 m, Wang et al. 10393 (TNU); Taoyuan District: Tengchi. Forest Resort Area. Shady forest floor, elev. ca. 1500 m, Peng & Chen 11231 (HAST); same loc., Wang et al. 10393 (TNU); Taoyuan Hsiang: en route from the Check Point to Tengchih Forest Recreation Area, elev. ca. 1500 m, Chen 736 (HAST); Taoyuan Hsiang: en route from Tengchih to Liukuei, elev. ca. 1500-2000 m, Chen 573 (HAST). Pingtung: Kusukusu, Hayata & Sasaki s. n. Jun. 1912 (TAIF); Lai-yi Hsiang: Yi-ding-shan. Broad-leaved forest, elev. ca. 750-1400 m, Wang & Hung 8475 (TNU); Laofoshan, elev. ca. 300 m, Wang 2926 (TAI); Manchou Hsiang : Laofoshan, elev. ca. 674 m, Chen 163 (HAST); Manchou Hsiang: along Lanjenhsi to Luliaohsi. Fragmented broadleaf forest, elev. ca. 200-300 m, Ho et al. 1376 (HAST); Manchou District: Mt. Nanjenshan. By Stream Palu, elev. ca. 150-300 m, Peng 7799 (HAST); Tahanshan, Amentotaxus formosana Preserved Area, elev. ca. 1300-1500 m, Chaw 789 (HAST); Tahanshan logging trial Mileage Sign ca. 21km, Y. J. Chen et al. 827 (TNU). Ilan: Fushan Botanical Garden, Chiang 107 (TAIF, TNU); same loc., elev. ca. 700-720 m, Peng et al. 13862 (HAST); Nanao Hsiang : Piyahao trail. Broadleaf forest. Along the shaded trail, elev. ca. 520 m, Liu et al. 845 (HAST, TNU); Nanao Hsiang: Wushihpi . Secondary broadleaf forest adjacent to beach, elev. ca. 245-400 m, Chen et al. 71 (HAST); en route from Nanao to Suao, ca. 5 km. N of Nanao, along Su-Hua Road, by Hsien-Kung Bridge, forest margin, by a small waterfall, elev. ca. 220 m, Peng et al. 13826 (HAST); On the way from Tungao to Nanao. Adjacent to Prov. Road #9, elev. ca. 50-100m, Chen 896 (TNU); Su-ao. On Su-Hwa Hwy above Su-ao, at mileage sign 114.2 km. Broadleaf forest. By roadside drainage ditch, elev. ca. 330 m, Peng et al. 15116 (HAST); Taipingshan to Tuchang, Suzuki 1144 (TAI); inter Ugan et Pianan-anbu, Suzuki 5006 (TAI). Hualien: Chohis Hsiang: en route from Huang-ma to Huang-ma #2 suspension bridge. 7.7-11 km W. of Shan-feng, elev. ca. 800-900 m, Lu 1349 (TNU); same loc., Huang-ma Camping Area, Liu 703 (HAST); Hsiulin Hsiang: Taroko National Park: Chingshuishan: en route from the end of Shakatang Forest Road to mountain top. Broadleaf forest on slope above dried stream, elev. ca. 1800-2400 m, Liao & Ho 1512 (HAST,TNU); Hsioulin Hsiang, en route from Tali to Tatung, elev. ca. 750-800 m, Leu & Yen 63 (HAST, TNU); same loc., Hu & Leu 1261 (HAST), Chen 203 (HAST), Chen 1120, 2092 (TNU); Hsiulin Hsiang: logging route beside Paipaoshi, from Pinho to Yuanlaonaoshan, elev. ca. 200 m, Leu et al. 1447 (HAST, TNU); Hsiulin Hsiang : Yenhai Forest Road. Secondary broadleaf forest, elev. ca. 585-0700 m, Wang et al. 434 (HAST); Juishui District: Fuyuan Village: Butterfly Vallely, elev. ca. 200-280 m, Peng & Chen 11649 (HAST); Kibisha et Mizuho, Yamamoto & Fukaki 280 (TAI); Lanshan, 24 th forest compartment, elev. ca. 1900-2100 m, Hsu 3609 (TAI); Lienhuachih, Lu 23148 (TAIF); Liyutan. (a lake near Huanlien City), Y. J. Chen & Shen 438, Shen 239 (TNU); Lunghsi, Hsieh 60 (TAIF); Shakatang river, Miyazaki s. n. Aug 14, 1933 (TNU); Wanjung District: Hungyeh Village: Hungyeh Hot Spring. Shady slopes by a stream, elev. ca. 200-400 m, Peng & Chen 11601 (HAST); Yuli, Wu & Yang 1016 (TAIF, TNU, HAST); Taitung: Chipeng, Huang & Lin 8800 (TAI); Chuifen-Chienching, Hosokawa 5204 (TAI); Jin-feng-hsiag: Jieh-da to Pi-lu hot spring, by the river bank, elev. ca. 300-450 m, Wang et al. 8723 (TNU); Yenping Hsiang : Taiwan Cycas Nature Reserve, en route from the entrance of the reserve area to the hut for workers. Broadleaf forest, elev. ca. 400-500 m, Hsiao et al. 1194 (HAST).

Japan, the Ryukyus. Taiwan, under forest in damp and semishady places from 0-2400 m throughout the island. Flowering in Mar.- Dec., central in May.- Dec.

Hara (1984) 檢視Tovaria miranda Lev.的全模式,認為和Pollia minor Honda及Pollia omeiensis Hong無異,依據命名的先後,將後兩者處理為異名,而台灣種類葉子形態由狹披針形到寬橢圓形,仍在此分類群的變異之內。 本分類群長得較壯碩的植株在形態上和P. secundiflora類似,但葉較薄,邊緣明顯波浪狀,密錐花序,雄蕊6枚同型,不同於P. secundiflora葉較厚,邊緣波浪狀不明顯,輪狀密錐花序,雄蕊二型。早期學者 (Brown, 1903; Masamune, 1936等) 記錄台灣存在P. zollingeri,該分類群和P. miranda類似,但可孕雄蕊3枚,退化雄蕊3枚,本研究檢視大量的標本,並未發現該項特徵,因此認為台灣不存在P. zollingeri。 Hong (1974, 1977) 描述本種植物的花瓣為白色並且具有粉紅色的斑點,但在所研究的族群中都未見粉紅色斑點。

Phenology: perennial herbs, evergreen

Roors form: roots fibrous

Stems form: monomorphic stem

Monomorphic stems habit: rhizomatous

Rooting at nodes or not: rooting at nodes

Lateral shoots: perforating

Phyllotaxis: spiral phyllotaxis

Leaves: petiole: subpetiolate

Leaves: shape (if dimorphic leaves, selected by rosette leaves): lanceolate

Leaves: apex: acuminate

Leaves: length (cm): 11-14

Leaves: width (cm): 2-3

Leaves indumentum: upper surface: glabrous

If upper surface glabrous, leaves indumentum: margin: glabrous

Prophyll: sheathing, apex acute

Inflorescence: take plance: terminal

Inflorescence: thyrse

Bracts: shape: lanceolate

Corolla: actinomorphic: petal 3, base free, equal or subequal

Flowers: bisexual, functionally male flowers

Sepals: sepal 3, equal

Sepals: color: white

Sepals: base: free

Sepals: shape: elliptic

Sepals: indumentum: glabrous

Sepals: length (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 3.8-4.5

Sepals: width (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 2.3-2.55

Flowers: color: white

Petals: shape: obovate

Petals: length (mm): 4-4.85

Petals: width (mm): 2.4-3

Stamens form: monomorphic: fertile stamens 6

Ovarys: shape: globose

Ovarys: indumentum: glabrous

Ovarys: length (mm): 1.3

Styles: indumentum: glabrous

Styles: length (mm): 5

Capsules: dehiscence: indehiscent

Capsules: shape: globose

Capsules: trilocular

Capsules: indumentum: glabrous

Capsule locules seeds: number: 5-7

Capsules: length (mm): 4

Seeds: lengh (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 1-1.5

Seeds: width (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 1.5


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