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Flora of Taiwan | Family List | Commelinaceae | Rhopalephora

Rhopalephora scaberrima (Blume) Faden, Phytologia. 37: 480. 1977; Smithsonian Contrib. Bot. 76: I-IV. 1991.

毛果竹葉菜 (毛果網籽草)

Commelina scaberrima Blume, Enum. Pl. Jav. 1: 4. 1827. Aneilema protensum Wall., Cat. no 5218. 1832. nom. nud. Aneilema protensum Wall. ex Thwait., Enum. Pl. Zeyl. 322. 1864. Aneilema scaberrimum (Blume) Kunth, Enum. Pl. 4: 69. 1843. Rao, Not. Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 25: 182. 1967; K. C. Hsu in Li et al., Fl. Taiwan 5: 158. pl. 1306. 1978. Dictyospermum protensum Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 6: 1853. Dictyospermum scaberrimum (Blume) J. K. Morton, J. Linn. Soc. (Bot.). 59 (380): 435-436. 1966. Dictyospermum scaberrimum (Blume) J. K. Morton ex D. Y. Hong, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 12 (4): 476. 1974; D. Y. Hong et al., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 13 (3): 117. pl. 29. 1997.

Perennial herbs, 50-100 cm tall. Roots fibrous. Stems branched, prostrate at base, erect above, rooting at node; upper stem covered with uncinate hairs, base glabrous. Leaves sessile-subpetiolate, lanceolate, 9-15 cm long, 1.6-2.2 cm wide, apex acuminate, base attenuate, prickle and uncinate hairs at both surfaces; sheath cylindrical, 2-4 cm long, covered with prickle, uncinate, and flagelliform hairs, margins ciliate. Inflorescences a loose thyrses (and usually 1-2 flowering shoots with a thyrse arising from the axil of the leaf), terminal, composed of 2-3 cincinni, slender, densely covered with uncinate hairs; bracts deltoid, 4-6 mm long, 2-4 mm wide, uncinate; bracteoles deltoid, infundibuliform, perfoliate, 4 mm long, 2 mm wide, glabrous; pedicel 1.5-2.5 cm. Flowers bisexual, zygomorphic; sepals 3, free, greenish, persistent, elliptic, concave, 3 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, glabrous; petals 3, free, white, sometimes blue, unequal, the lateral petals: 2, equal, planar, clawed, the limb broadly rounded-ovate, 5 mm long, 7 mm wide, apex obtuse, base cuneate-cordate, the claw 3-4 mm long; the medial petal small, clawed, 6 mm long, 5 mm wide; fertile stamens 3, anticous, unequal, basally fused, the lateral stamens antesepalous, longer, sometimes petaloid, anther brown or indigo, elliptic, ca. 1 mm long, filament ca. 8.5 mm long, glabrous, the medial stamen antepetalous, smaller, anther elliptic-ovate, ca 1-1.5 mm long, filament ca. 6 mm long; staminodes 2-3, unequal, the medial staminode antesepalous, usually lacking or vestigial, the lateral ones antepetalous, antherodes yellow, bilobed, ca 1 mm long, ca. 2 mm wide, filament 5-6 mm long; ovary globose, 2 mm long, densely uncinate; style glabrous, ca. 1 cm long. Capsules trilocular, locules 1-seeded, seeds sometimes abortive, valves unequal, opened by external force, capsules lustrous, brown, spotted, globoid, diam. ca. 4 mm, densely covered with uncinate hairs. Seeds trapezoidal in outline, dorsiventral, ventral surface planar, dorsal surface convex, ca. 3 mm long, 2.5 mm across, scrobiculate, with farinose granules, embryotega lateral, hilum linear. Chromosome number: n = 29.

Taipei: Mt. Peichatienshan, elev. ca. 300-400 m, Peng 7409 (HAST); same loc., elev. ca. 770 m, Peng 7435 (HAST); en route from "Chengpai Villa" to Mt. Peichatienshan, elev. ca. 350-550 m, Peng 8604, 8605 (HAST); Wulai Hsiang: Fushan Village, Happen Natural Preserved Area, Y. J. Chen & Wang 869 (TNU); Lelekuo, Y. J. Chen & Wang 861 (TNU); Sanhsia Town: Mt. Jinminshan, Peng 6233 (HAST); Sanhsia Town: LeLeku, Chen 2098 (TNU); Sanhsia: Manyuehyuan, Y. J. Chen & Lin 900 (TNU); Sanhsia: Wuliaochien, elev. ca. 450 m, Peng 8708 (HAST); Sinten, Wantan, Simizu 3232 (TAI); Wulai, Kao 10123 (TAI); same loc., Kanehira & Sasaki s. n. May. 10, 1919 (TAIF); same loc., Yang s. n. Nov. 25, 1995 (TAIF); same loc., Fujida s. n. Oct. 16, 1932 (TNU); Wulai Hsiang: Neitung Forest Recreation Area, Y. J. Chen et al 292 (TNU). Taoyuan: Fuhsing Hsiang: on road 7, between Luofu and Kaopo, at Lahao Bridge near Tuanhui, milage sign km 25-26. Moist slope by a small watershed, elev. ca. 450 m, Peng et al. 14666 (HAST); Kappanzan, Sasaki s. n. Nov. 1915 (TAIF); inter Kappanzan et Urai (Fuhsing to Hsiaowulai), Suzuki 4607 (TAI); en trail from Paling to Fushan, Y. J. Chen et al. 634 (TNU); Hsinchu: Wuchihshan. In Cryptomeria plantation, elev. ca. 650-700 m, Peng et al. 12913 (HAST). Miaoli: Taian hot spring, elev. ca. 300-400 m, Wang 7676 (TNU); same loc., Liao et al. 1545 (HAST); same loc., Lin et al. 563 (HAST). Taichung: Hoping Hsiang: Wushihkeng, en route from The Low Altitute Experimental Station, Taiwan Endemic Species Reaserch Institute to Wushihkenghsi. Broadleaf forest. elev. ca. 1000-1250 m, Shen et al. 206 (HAST); Pahsienshan, Suzuki s. n. Oct. 22, 1929 (TAI); same loc., Sasaki s. n. Dec. 23, 1922 (TAIF); Pahsienshan Forest Recreation Area, Chen 1931 (TNU); Tungshih experimental forest. Y. J. Chen 448 (TNU). Nantou: Chitou, elev. ca. 950 m, in artificial Cryptomeria forest, Hsu 8948 (TAI); en route from Chunyang to Tolowan. By a waterfall, elev. ca. 1250 m, Peng 7542, 7543 (HAST); Hosya, Yamamoto s. n. Nov. 10, 1938 (TAI); Hosheh: On shade, moist roadside; in artificial Cunninghamia forest, elev. ca. 1250-1350 m, Peng 6193 (HAST); Kuantaochi, Chang 2220 (TAI); Mt. Honhong, Kao 6763 (TAI); Shantsalunn near chitou, elev. ca. 1500 m, Hsu 5105 (TAI); Shitou, Moo 2116 (TAI); from Shitou to Mt. Fohhanshan, Minaki s. n. Oct. 8, 1985 (TAIF). Chiayi: Chiehtung Villa to Tienyunshan, elev. ca. 700-1300 m, Peng 8884 (HAST); Chuchi Hsiang, Kuanyin Water Fall, elev. ca. 400-450 m, Yen 6828 (HAST); Fanlu District: en route from Longmei (= Laitou) to Tsaoshan, elev. ca. 900-1000 m, Peng et al. 10065 (HAST); Fanlu Hsiang: Chukou, Provincial Rd. #18, Y. J. Chen & Liao 432 (TNU); Funchifu, Feung 4921 (TAI); Fenchihu to Tianchian, Y. J. Chen & Shen 822 (TNU); same loc., 18 lohan cave, Y. J. Chen & Shen 826 (TNU); Mt. Niitaka (Yushan), Kawakami & Mori s. n. Oct. 12, 1905 (TAIF); Kotaipo (Tapu), Sasaki s. n. Oct. 1917 (TAIF); Tapu Hsiang: Watershed area of Tsengwen Dam, along a trail from bridge #4, Y. J. Chen et al. 811 (TNU). Kaohsiung: Chiahsienpu, s. coll. s. n. Mar. 30, 1916 (TAI); Lioukue, Shuangsi, elev. ca. 100 m, Ohashi et al. 14882 (TAI); Liukuei, Yang s. n. Dec. 28, 1976 (TAIF); same loc., elev. ca. 1200m, Wang 580 (HAST, TNU); Maoling, Y. J. Chen & Hong 430 (TNU); Shanping Forest Research Experiment Station, elev. ca. 650 m, Peng & Chen 11238 (HAST); same loc., summer collecting team, s. n. 1986 (TNU); Chen & Wang 340 (HAST); Wang & Lin 825 (HAST); Between Shanping and Nanfengshan, Primary and Secondary broadleaf evergreen forest with some planted Cunninghamia konishii and Calocedrus formosana, elev. ca. 1330 m, W. L. Wagner et al. 6614 (HAST); Taoyuan Hsiang: Kuanshan, elev. ca. 2400 m, Chen 104 (HAST); Taoyuan Hsiang: Paolai to Meilung, elev. ca. 1140 m, Lu 679 (TNU, HAST); Tengchin, elev. ca. 1500 m, Huang 14404 (TAI); Tengchu, Mt. Tsuyunshan, elev. ca. 1000 m, Ohashi 13181 (TAI); same loc., elev. ca. 1100-1500 m, Wu 5075 (TAIF, TNU, HAST); Wuweishan, Matuda s. n. Dec. 31, 1918 (TAIF). Pingtung: Wanluan District: Wanchin. In secondary forest, elev. ca. 170 m, Peng 10171 (HAST); Shihtzu Hsiang: Shuangliu Forest Recreation Area, en route from the entrance to Shuangliu Waterfall. Broadleaf forest, elev. ca. 50-250 m, Hsiao & Lai 1103 (HAST); Tahanshan logging trial Mileage Sign ca. 21 km, Y. J. Chen et al. 829 (TNU). Ilan: Fushan, Fushan branch office of Taiwan Forestry Research Institute, elev. ca. 650 m, Boufford et al. 25124 (HAST). Hualien: Chohsi Hsiang: Yushan National Park, Batungguan trail, en route from Huangma to Nan-an along the Lakulaku river valley, Lin 59 (HAST, TNU); Chohsi District: between Luming and Lanshan, en route to Walabi, elev. ca. 420-600 m, Peng & Chen 11677 (HAST); Lanshan., Peng et al. 9900 (HAST); Liyutan. (a lake near Huanlien City), Y. J. Chen & Shen 434, Shen 237 (TNU); Taroko National Park: mountain trail between Lushui and Wenshan, elev. ca. 750 m, Peng et al. 13098 (HAST); Taroko National Park: Tali to Tatung, elev. ca. 850 m, Chen 137 (HAST); Wanjung District: Hungyeh Village: Hungyeh Hot Spring, By a stream, elev. ca. 200-400 m, Peng & Chen 11616 (HAST); Yuli Town: Yushan National Park, en route from Nanan through Shanfeng, Huangma to Walami Scattered on somewhat shaded grassy slope by a trail, elev. ca. 500-1000 m, Chen 608 (HAST).

India, Sri Lanka, the Himalayas, China (Guangdong, Hainan, Guangxl, Guizhou, Yunnan, Xizang), Malaysia, Indonesia. Taiwan, found in semishady places and wasteland from 50-2400 m throughout the island. Flowering all the year round, central in Jul.- Dec.

分類學者對於本種植物的歸群看法不一,主要分歧在於對Aneilema,Dictyospermum及Rhopalephora三屬的界限莫衷一致。Morton (1966) 認為Aneilema應專屬於非洲的種類,而亞洲的種類則應分別歸於Dictyospermum及Tricarpelema兩屬。Dictyospermum最早由Wight (1853) 發表,主要特徵為雄蕊3枚,極少有5枚,種子背面具有網紋;Morton (1966) 擴大Dictyospermum屬的範圍,認為本屬植物種子不一定具有網紋,位在花部上方的兩枚雄蕊不孕,其花藥由兩個圓形裂片構成。依Wight及Morton的看法,台灣產的本種植物皆歸於Dictyospermum。Faden (1991) 採用較狹義的看法,認為Dictyospermum花瓣同型,缺少不孕性雄蕊,種子具網紋,主張將本種植物歸於Rhopalephora屬,並認為Rhopalephora和Aneilema極為類似,必需綜觀許多的特徵才能加以區分,但Rhopalephora的染色體基數為x = 29,與Aneilema不同;本研究依據細胞學的資料和形態上的差異,依循Faden (1991) 的處理。 台灣產本種植物在花部構造上常有一些變異:(1) 對萼的不孕性雄蕊較對瓣的不孕性雄蕊退化,花藥退化為不規則的裂片,或整個雄蕊只剩下絲狀突起或完全消失;(2) 對瓣的不孕性雄蕊有時可見其花藥裂片內含有花粉,但花粉較小、形狀殘破且細胞質較少;(3) 對萼的可孕雄蕊其花絲有時轉變成花瓣狀,花藥只剩下痕跡。 本種植物之果實,依據Hsu (1978) 的描述為胞背開裂的蒴果,但觀察發現在自然情況下除非有外力的拉扯,否則果實不會自動裂開,而腹面的果瓣較易裂開,開裂後,兩室內的種子隨即散落,果實背面中央是另外兩個果瓣的縫合處,縫合線較不清楚使得果瓣不易裂開,因此種子常包含在其中隨著果瓣一起掉落。

Phenology: perennial herbs, evergreen

Roors form: roots fibrous

Stems form: monomorphic stem

Monomorphic stems habit: procumbent

Rooting at nodes or not: rooting at nodes

Lateral shoots: perforating

Phyllotaxis: spiral phyllotaxis

Leaves: petiole: sessile, subpetiolate

Leaves: shape (if dimorphic leaves, selected by rosette leaves): lanceolate

Leaves: apex: acuminate

Leaves: length (cm): 9-15

Leaves: width (cm): 1.6-2.2

Leaves indumentum: upper surface: pubscent

Prophyll: sheathing, apex acute

Inflorescence: take plance: terminal

Inflorescence: thyrse

Bracts: shape: deltoid

Corolla: zygomorphic: petal 3, base free, unequal

Flowers: bisexual

Sepals: sepal 3, equal

Sepals: color: greenish

Sepals: base: free

Sepals: shape: elliptic

Sepals: indumentum: glabrous

Sepals: length (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 3

Sepals: width (if dimorphic sepals, selected by anticous two) (mm): 2.5

Flowers: color: white

Petals: shape: dimorphic: the lateral petals 2 broadly rounded-ovate; the medial petal small

Petals: length (mm): 5

Petals: width (mm): 7

Stamens form: dimorphic: fertile stamens 3

Ovarys: shape: globose

Ovarys: indumentum: densely uncinate

Ovarys: length (mm): 2

Styles: indumentum: glabrous

Styles: length (mm): 1

Capsules: dehiscence: dehiscent, opened by external force

Capsules: shape: globoid

Capsules: trilocular

Capsules: indumentum: densely uncinate

Capsule locules seeds: number: 1

Capsules: length (mm): 4

Seeds: lengh (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 3

Seeds: width (if dimorphic seeds, selected by dorsal one) (mm): 2.5


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