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Habit: tree, evergreen

Branchlets: opposite, base with leaf scars or bud scales

Branches: irregularly whorled

Important diagnostics: with twisted leaf bases

Leaves: Position: spirally arranged, radially spreading, pectinately arranged

Leaves: Shape: linear or lanceolate, flattened

Pollen Cone: Position: axillary, pendulous

Pollen Cone: Shape: cylindric, ellipsoid, oblong

Seed Cones: Position: pendulous

Seed Cones: Bract scales: oblong, obcordate, obovate

Seed scales: overlapping, reniform, trapeziform, flabellate

Seeds: Shape: ovoid, cuneate-oblong

Cotyledons number: 3, 4, 5, 6, 7-10, >10

Germination: epigeal


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