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Taiwan Gramineae | Family List

Poaceae (R. Brown) Barnhart

Grass Family


Authors: Chang-Sheng Kuoh

Chloris gayana

  • Gramineae Adans.

    Annual or perennial herbs, rather rarely with woody perennial culms (subfamily Bambusoideae); hollow or solid, septate at the nodes. Leaves two-ranked, consisting of the sheaths, ligules and the blades. Leaf-blades mostly linear and not petiolate at base, rarely with broad blades and stipitate at base (subfamily Bambusoideae); ligules membranous or ciliate, rarely lacking (Echinochloa), leaf-sheaths clothed at the internodes. Flowers bisexual or occasionally unisexual, without distinct perianth, it representing by 2 or 3 small scales, the lodicules, rarely six or sometimes absent; stamen mostly 3, rarely variable numbers, with filiform filaments and 2-celled anthers; pistil 1, ovary 1-loculed, containg 1 anatropous ovule, the style with plumose stigmas. Fruit mostly a caryopsis with rich endosperm, the embryo at the base opposite to punctiform or linear hilum which facing the palea. Flowers sessile between abaxial lemma and adaxial palea, constituting a floret. One to many florets dispoded alternatly on the oppostie sides of rachilla, in addition with a pair of empty glumes at the base forming a spikelet. Inflorescence with spikelets as an unit aggregate into panicle, raceme or spikes.

    Hsu(1974) treated 5 subfamilies (excluding Bambusoideae), 27 tribes, 118 genera, 289 species, 1 subspecies, 39 varieties, and 8 forms in Taiwan.

    subfam.3. Festucoideae

    1 Ovary with a hairy appendage at the apex; caryopsis adnate to the palea, hilum linear.   (2)
    + Ovary glabrous, if hairy, without hairy appendage at the apex; caryopsis not adnate to the palea.   (4)
    2 (1) Spikelets pedicelled in a panicle   Bromeae
    + Spikelets sessile or nearly sessile on the rachis of a solitary spike or raceme.   (3)
    3 (2) Spikelets shortly pedicelled, on a raceme; awn terminal   Brachypodieae
    + Spikelets sessile on opposite sides of the rachis   Triticeae
    4 (1) Lemmas 7-11-nerved; lodicule one, fleshy, truncate   Meliceae
    + Lemmas mostly 5-nerved (7-11-nerved n Avena); lodicules 2, acute or acuminate.   (5)
    5 (4) Spikelets one to several-flowered; lemmas not coriaceous, nerves distinct; sheaath margins adnate at least at the basal part.   (6)
    + Spikelets one-flowered; lemmas coriaceous, nerves not distinct; sheath margins free.   (7)
    6 (5) Glumes distinct, much shorter than the lowest lemma; flowers usually more than two.   Festuceae
    + Glumes longer or nearly as long as the lowest lemma; florets 1, 3 or several.   Agrostideae
    7 (5) Caryopsis large, with a hard beak at the apex   Phaenospermeae
    + Caryopsis much smaller, without a beak.   (8)
    8 (7) Lemmas awnless; dorsally compressed.   Milieae
    + Lemmas awned, terete   (9)
    9 (8) Awns trifid.   Aristideae
    + Awn simple, sometimes flanked by 2 bristles.   Stipeae

    List of Keys

  • List of lower taxa


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