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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 12 | Sapindaceae

20. Allophylus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 348. 1753.

异木患属 yi mu huan shu

Shrubs, rarely trees [rarely woody climbers], monoecious or dioecious. Leaves digitate, stipules absent; leaflets 1-5, petiolate or subsessile, usually serrate, sometimes entire. Thyrses axillary, racemose or compound racemose; bracts and bracteoles subulate or lanceolate, small. Flowers unisexual, zygomorphic, closed, small. Sepals 4, concurved, outer 2 elliptic, slightly smaller, inner 2 suborbicular. Petals 4, each 2 in a pair, adaxially with scales at base. Disk 4-sect, lobes glandlike, apex truncate or obtuse. Stamens (male flowers) 8, sometimes fewer, exserted; filaments free or connate below middle. Ovary (female flowers) 2(or 3)-partitioned, 2-loculed, lobes subglobose or obovate; ovules 1 per locule, inserted near base of middle axis; style basilar, entire or 2- or 3-lobed nearly to base; stigma recurved. Fruit parted into 2 or 3 schizocarps, often only 1 developed, berrylike, subglobose or obovoid, base with rudimentary style and small, globose, sterile schizocarp, exocarp fleshy, juicy, endocarp crustaceous. Seeds nearly same as schizocarp in shape; embryo arched, reflexed. 2n = 28.

About 200 species: widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions; 11 species (two endemic) in China.

This is a genus in need of taxonomic revision. Leenhouts (Blumea 15: 301-358. 1967), noting the clinal variation and regional intergraduation, considered that the genus is monotypic comprising a single polymorphic species. Verdcourt (Fl. Trop. E. Africa, Sapindaceae, 75. 1998) noted that some species are easier to delimit than others, particularly between forest and bushland species. Within China, the 11 species are very distinct.

1 Leaves 1-foliolate   (2)
+ Leaves 3(-5)-foliolate   (4)
2 (1) Inflorescences in pairs or fascicles; leaflets sparsely wavy serrate.   3 A. chartaceus
+ Inflorescences solitary   (3)
3 (2) Leaflets adaxially shallowly wavy toothed or wavy shallowly parted.   1 A. repandifolius
+ Leaflets adaxially sparsely serrulate.   2 A. petelotii
4 (1) Leaflets 5, sometimes 3 or 4; filaments each 2 connate below middle; petals adaxially with 1 entire scale; inflorescences racemose, main rachis unbranched.   11 A. dimorphus
+ Leaflets 3; filaments free; petals adaxially with 1 or 2 scales   (5)
5 (4) Main rachis of inflorescences at least with one branch   (6)
+ Main rachis unbranched, inflorescences racemose   (8)
6 (5) Terminal leaflet apically acute, mucronate, base rounded; leaflets abaxially with a villous tuft in lateral vein axils; inflorescences densely flowered.   10 A. timoriensis
+ Terminal leaflet apically caudate-acuminate, base cuneate; inflorescences sparsely flowered   (7)
7 (6) Leaflets abaxially without tufts of hairs in lateral vein axils, margin shallowly wavy toothed.   5 A. caudatus
+ Leaflets abaxially usually tufted villous in lateral vein axils, margin serrulate.   9 A. longipes
8 (5) Leaflets abaxially glabrous or only with tufts of hairs in lateral vein axils   (9)
+ Leaflets densely tomentose abaxially or pubescent on veins of both surfaces   (10)
9 (8) Leaflets abaxially with tufts of hairs in lateral vein axils, margin serrulate.   4 A. viridis
+ Leaflets abaxially glabrous, margin shallowly wavy toothed.   5 A. caudatus
10 (8) Leaflets abaxially hispid, lateral leaflets sharply serrate from base; plants monoecious.   8 A. hirsutus
+ Leaflets villous, lateral leaflets serrulate from middle; plants dioecious   (11)
11 (10) Leaflets only pubescent on veins.   6 A. cobbe var. velutinus
+ Leaflets villous throughout.   7 A. trichophyllus

  • List of lower taxa


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