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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 8

Brassicaceae Burnett

十字花科 shi zi hua ke

Authors: Tai-yien Cheo, Lianli Lu, Guang Yang, Ihsan Al-Shehbaz & Vladimir Dorofeev

Megadenia pygmaea

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs annual, biennial, or perennial, sometimes subshrubs or shrubs, with a pungent, watery juice. Eglandular trichomes unicellular, simple, stalked or sessile, 2- to many forked, stellate, dendritic, or malpighiaceous (medifixed, bifid, appressed), rarely peltate and scalelike; glandular trichomes multicellular, with uniseriate or multiseriate stalk. Stems erect, ascending, or prostrate, sometimes absent. Leaves exstipulate, simple, entire or variously pinnately dissected, rarely trifoliolate or pinnately, palmately, or bipinnately compound; basal leaf rosette present or absent; cauline leaves almost always alternate, rarely opposite or whorled, petiolate or sessile, sometimes absent. Inflorescence bracteate or ebracteate racemes, corymbs, or panicles, sometimes flowers solitary on long pedicels originating from axils of rosette leaves. Flowers hypogynous, mostly actinomorphic. Sepals 4, in 2 decussate pairs, free or rarely united, not saccate or lateral (inner) pair saccate. Petals 4, alternate with sepals, arranged in the form of a cross (cruciform; hence the earlier family name Cruciferae), rarely rudimentary or absent. Stamens 6, in 2 whorls, tetradynamous (lateral (outer) pair shorter than median (inner) 2 pairs), rarely equal or in 3 pairs of unequal length, sometimes stamens 2 or 4, very rarely 8-24; filaments slender, winged, or appendaged, median pairs free or rarely united; anthers dithecal, dehiscing by longitudinal slits. Pollen grains 3-colpate, trinucleate. Nectar glands receptacular, highly diversified in number, shape, size, and disposition around base of filaments, always present opposite bases of lateral filaments, median glands present or absent. Pistil 2-carpelled; ovary superior, sessile or borne on a distinct gynophore, mostly 2-locular and with a false septum connecting 2 placentae; placentation parietal, rarely apical; ovules anatropous or campylotropous, bitegmic, 1 to many per locule. Fruit typically a 2-valved capsule, generally termed silique (siliqua) when length 3 × or more than width, or silicle (silicula) when length less than 3 × width, dehiscent or indehiscent, sometimes schizocarpic, nutletlike, lomentaceous, or samaroid, segmented or not, terete, angled, or flattened parallel to septum (latiseptate) or at a right angle to septum (angustiseptate); valves 2(or 3-6); replum (persistent placenta) rounded, rarely flattened or winged; septum complete, perforated, reduced to a rim, or lacking; style 1, distinct, obsolete, or absent; stigma capitate or conical, entire or 2-lobed, sometimes lobes decurrent and free or connate. Seeds without endosperm, uniseriately or biseriately arranged in each locule, aseriate when 1, winged or wingless, mucilaginous or not when wetted; cotyledons incumbent (embryo notorrhizal: radicle lying along back of 1 cotyledon), accumbent (embryo pleurorrhizal: radicle applied to margins of both cotyledons), or conduplicate (embryo orthoplocal: cotyledons folded longitudinally around radicle), rarely spirally coiled (embryo spirolobal). Germination epigeal.

About 330 genera and 3500 species: all continents except Antarctica, mainly in temperate areas, with highest diversity in Irano-Turanian, Mediterranean, and W North American regions; 102 genera (eight endemic) and 412 species (115 endemic) in China.

Because of lack of a comprehensive classification based on phylogenetic relationships among genera, and in order to facilitate direct comparison between the accounts in FOC and FRPS, the sequence of genera follows Schulz (Nat. Pflanzenfam. 17b: 227-658. 1936). However, it should be emphasized that his system is largely artificial because he placed closely related genera in different tribes and remotely related genera in the same tribe. For example, Arabis, Aubrieta, Draba, and Macropodium, which are very closely related on the basis of recent molecular studies, were placed by Schulz in four different tribes, whereas the unrelated Capsella, Lepidium, and Thlaspi were placed in one tribe. The delimitation of genera is often difficult, and mature fruits are needed for reliable identification.

The Brassicaceae include many important crop plants that are grown as vegetables (Brassica, Nasturtium, Raphanus) and sources of vegetable oils (Brassica) and condiments (Armoracia, Brassica, Eutrema, Sinapis). Oils of Brassica probably rank first in terms of tonnage of the world's production of edible oils. The family includes many ornamentals in the genera Erysimum, Iberis Linnaeus, Lobularia, Malcolmia, and Matthiola. Of these, only Lobularia maritima has become naturalized in China. The family also includes more than 120 species of weeds. Arabidopsis thaliana, which is naturalized in China, has become the model organism in many fields of experimental biology.

The delimitation of genera in the Brassicaceae is often difficult because of the frequent independent evolution of what appear to be similar character states, the variability of a given character in one genus and its fixture in another, and the inadequate sampling of material by most authors. Fruit characters are essential in the identification of genera. However, a key emphasizing flowering material is given in addition to the one emphasizing fruit. The most reliable determination of genera can be achieved when the material has both fruit and flowers and when both keys are successfully used to reach the same genus.

The types of cotyledonary position, which in reality is the position of the radicle in relation to the cotyledons (e.g., radicle accumbent, incumbent, or conduplicate, though radicle referred to as "cotyledon" throughout) are important in the separation of many genera, and a cross section of the seed provides the easiest and simplest way of determining that position. The exact number of ovules per ovary can easily be determined from the fruit because aborted ovules persist through fruit dehiscence. However, it is more laborious to determine the ovule number from pistils and young fruit.

Cheo Tai-yien, Guo Rong-lin, Lan Young-zhen, Lou Lian-li, Kuan Ke-chien & An Zheng-xi. 1987. Cruciferae. In: Cheo Tai-yien, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 33: 1-483.

Leads marked with a "double asterisk" (**) indicate that mature fruits are necessary for the identification of genera in the subordinate couplet(s).


Key to flowering material

1 Flowers on solitary pedicels originating from basal rosette.   (2)
+ Flowers in racemes, corymbs, or panicles.   (13)
       
2 (1) Stigma conical, with prominent, decurrent, connivent lobes; lateral sepals strongly saccate.   (3)
+ Stigma capitate, entire, if 2-lobed (Desideria) then lobes neither decurrent not connivent; lateral sepals not saccate.   (4)
       
3 (2) Plants with glandular trichomes; leaves pinnatisect or pinnatipartite   68 Chorispora
+ Plants eglandular; leaves entire or dentate   72 Leiospora
       
4 (2) Stigma distinctly 2-lobed; leaves subapically 3-9-toothed   57 Desideria
+ Stigma entire; leaves entire or laterally toothed, if subapically toothed then sepals united or petals yellow.   (5)
       
5 (4) Plants with branched trichomes.   (6)
+ Plants glabrous or with simple trichomes.   (8)
       
6 (5) Annuals with submalpighiaceous trichomes; petals yellow; filaments of median stamens broadly winged   62 Lepidostemon
+ Perennials without submalpighiaceous trichomes; petals white, pink, or purple; filaments of median stamens slender.   (7)
       
7 (6) Leaves entire; petals 3-4 mm; sepals free; dendritic trichomes absent   86 Baimashania
+ Leaves dentate; petals 6-13 mm; sepals united; dendritic trichomes present   84 Pycnoplinthopsis
       
8 (5) Sepals united.   (9)
+ Sepals free.   (10)
       
9 (8) Petioles ciliate; calyx lobes sparsely pilose; pedicels less than 1 cm   64 Solms-laubachia
+ Petioles and calyx lobes glabrous; pedicels 1.5-4 cm   85 Pycnoplinthus
       
10 (8) Leaf margin with distinct, mucronate callosities at vein endings   47 Neomartinella
+ Leaf margin without mucronate callosities.   (11)
       
11 (10) Leaves palmately veined; ovary subdidymous, 2-ovuled; nectar glands 4   17 Megadenia
+ Leaves pinnately veined; ovary not didymous, more than 2-ovuled; nectar glands 2 and lateral, or confluent and subtending bases of all stamens.   (12)
       
12 (11) Petals 1-2.5 cm; leaves entire; nectar glands 2, lateral   64 Solms-laubachia
+ Petals usually less than 1 cm (rarely to 1.5 cm in P. scapiflorum subsp. robustum); leaves dentate, if entire then sepals to 3 mm; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all stamens   44 Pegaeophyton
       
13 (1) Plants glabrous or with simple trichomes only.   (14)
+ Plants with branched trichomes.   (90)
       
14 (13) Stamens (8-)12-16(-24)   16 Megacarpaea
+ Stamens 2, 4, or 6.   (15)
       
15 (14) Stamens 2.   (16)
+ Stamens 6 or rarely 4.   (17)
       
16 (15) Fruit not didymous; lateral racemes absent   10 Lepidium
+ Fruit didymous even when immature; lateral racemes present, leaf-opposed   11 Coronopus
       
17 (15) Petals absent.   (18)
+ Petals present.   (20)
       
18 (17) Ovules 1 or 2 per ovary; pistil or fruit as long as wide   10 Lepidium
+ Ovules more than 16 per ovary; pistil or fruit considerably longer than broad.   (19)
       
19 (18) Plants glaucous; rachis of raceme flexuous; leaves linear to linear-oblanceolate   97 Thellungiella
+ Plants not glaucous; rachis of raceme straight; leaves differently shaped   60 Rorippa
       
20 (17) Filaments of median stamens united   63 Dontostemon
+ Filaments of median stamens free.   (21)
       
21 (20) Plants with glandular trichomes.   (22)
+ Plants without glandular trichomes.   (29)
       
22 (21) Stigma entire or subentire; lateral sepals not saccate.   (23)
+ Stigma strongly 2-lobed, capitate, conical, or linear; lateral sepals strongly saccate.   (24)
       
23 (22) Leaves entire; ovary globose; pedicels articulate at base   33 Litwinowia
+ Leaves dentate, serrate, or pinnatifid; ovary linear; pedicels not articulate at base   63 Dontostemon
       
24 (22) Stigma capitate; lobes neither connivent nor decurrent.   (25)
+ Stigma conical or linear; lobes strongly decurrent and connivent.   (26)
       
25 (24) Petals oblanceolate, 0.7-1 cm; style usually more than 2 mm   69 Diptychocarpus
+ Petals obovate, 1.1-2.5 mm; style less than 2 mm   76 Clausia
       
26 (24) Petals yellow, if purple then to 1 cm; anthers oblong, 0.5-1.5(-2) mm   68 Chorispora
+ Petals purple; anthers linear or rarely oblong-linear, (2.5-)3-5 mm.   (27)
       
27 (26) Perennials; flowering stems leafless   70 Parrya
+ Annuals or biennials; flowering stems leafy.   (28)
       
28 (27) Petals obovate, 5-10 mm wide; glandular trichomes on few-celled, uniseriate stalks   75 Hesperis
+ Petals linear or linear-oblanceolate, 1.5-3 mm wide; glandular trichomes on multicellular, multiseriate stalks   77 Pseudoclausia
       
29 (21) Stigma conical, with decurrent, connivent lobes.   (30)
+ Stigma capitate, entire, if lobed then lobes neither connivent nor decurrent (rarely slightly decurrent in Eruca and Orychophragmus).   (35)
       
30 (29) Annuals or biennials, rarely rhizomatous perennials; flowering stems several to many leaved; basal leaves not rosulate.   (31)
+ Perennials with a distinct caudex; flowering stems leafless, rarely 1- or 2-leaved; basal leaves rosulate.   (33)
       
31 (30) Terminal lobe of basal and lowermost cauline leaves about same size as lateral lobes; filaments of median stamens flattened, sometimes 1-toothed   63 Dontostemon
+ Terminal lobe of basal and lowermost cauline leaves considerably larger than lateral lobes, sometimes lateral lobes absent; filaments of median stamens slender, not toothed.   (32)
       
32 (31) Petals yellow with dark brown or purple veins; anthers obtuse; uppermost leaves subsessile   5 Eruca
+ Petals white, lavender, or purple, without darker veins; anthers apiculate; uppermost cauline leaves petiolate, sometimes also auriculate   8 Orychophragmus
       
33 (30) Style absent; leaf blade about as long as broad   72 Leiospora
+ Style distinct; leaf blade much longer than broad.   (34)
       
34 (33) Ovaries and fruit torulose; petal claws to 8 mm; seeds wingless   68 Chorispora
+ Ovaries and fruit not torulose; petals claws longer; seeds winged even at early stages of development   70 Parrya
       
35 (29) Lateral pair of sepals slightly to strongly saccate.   (36)
+ Lateral pair of sepals not saccate.   (44)
       
36 (35) Sepals united; developing and mature fruit winged and/or spiny   15 Pugionium
+ Sepals free; fruit wingless, not spiny.   (37)
       
37 (36) Petals yellow.   (38)
+ Petals purple, lavender, pink, or white.   (41)
       
38 (37) Cauline leaves sessile, auriculate or amplexicaul; petals without darker colored veins.   (39)
+ At least some cauline leaves petiolate, not auriculate or amplexicaul; petals with darker colored veins.   (40)
       
39 (38) Cauline leaves entire; petals (7-)9-30 mm   2 Brassica
+ Cauline leaves coarsely dentate, pinnatifid, or pinnatisect; petals 3-6(-7) mm   46 Barbarea
       
40 (38) Stigma 2-lobed, lobes slightly decurrent; pistil sessile   5 Eruca
+ Stigma entire; pistil short stipitate on a sterile lower segment   6 Raphanus
       
41 (37) Pedicels articulate at base; ovaries and young fruit ovoid to oblong.   (42)
+ Pedicels not articulate at base; ovaries and young fruit linear.   (43)
       
42 (41) Cauline leaves entire or rarely dentate, auriculate; style obsolete   82 Goldbachia
+ Cauline leaves dentate, sinuate, or pinnately lobed, not auriculate; style prominent   30 Spirorhynchus
       
43 (41) Stigma entire; pistil short stipitate on a sterile lower segment   6 Raphanus
+ Stigma 2-lobed, lobes slightly decurrent; pistil sessile   8 Orychophragmus
       
44 (35) Petals yellow.   (45)
+ Petals purple, lavender, pink, or white.   (55)
       
45 (44) Cauline leaves sessile, auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul.   (46)
+ Cauline leaves petiolate, if sessile then not auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul.   (50)
       
46 (45) Leaves strongly dimorphic, basal and lowermost cauline ones 2- or 3- pinnatifid or -pinnatisect, uppermost entire   10 Lepidium
+ Leaves usually monomorphic, undivided, if divided than basal and lowermost cauline ones not as above.   (47)
       
47 (46) At least some cauline leaves coarsely dentate to pinnately divided; ovaries and young fruit with numerous ovules   60 Rorippa
+ Cauline leaves entire; ovaries and young fruit 1(or 2)-ovuled.**   (48)
       
48 (47) Racemes few, not grouped in panicles; young or mature fruit navicular, with incurved margins   31 Tauscheria
+ Racemes often many, grouped in panicles; fruit flat, not navicular.   (49)
       
49 (48) Fruit margin thickened; petals to 2 mm   14 Pachypterygium
+ Fruit margin not thickened; petals more than 2 mm, if shorter (Isatis minima) then pistils and developing fruit distinctly longer than broad   13 Isatis
       
50 (45) Cespitose perennials (2-)3-12(-17) cm tall; ovaries and young fruit ovoid   96 Braya
+ Annuals or biennials, rarely noncespitose perennials, often much taller; ovaries and young fruit linear.   (51)
       
51 (50) Stigma entire.   (52)
+ Stigma 2-lobed.   (53)
       
52 (51) Stems often leafless, rarely few leaved; nectar glands 4, separated   4 Diplotaxis
+ Stems leafy; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments   60 Rorippa
       
53 (51) Nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments; seeds oblong; cotyledons incumbent   90 Sisymbrium
+ Nectar glands 4, not confluent; seeds globose; cotyledons conduplicate.**   (54)
       
54 (53) Fruit valves obscurely veined or with a prominent midvein   2 Brassica
+ Fruit valves with 3-7, prominent longitudinal veins   3 Sinapis
       
55 (44) Racemes bracteate throughout or along proximal half.   (56)
+ Racemes ebracteate.   (66)
       
56 (55) Leaves and bracts palmately veined or trifoliolate.   (57)
+ Leaves and bracts pinnately veined.   (61)
       
57 (56) Bracts and/or uppermost leaves trifoliolate   26 Yinshania
+ Bracts and uppermost leaves simple.   (58)
       
58 (57) Petals purple or rarely pink; pedicels puberulent adaxially along entire length   28 Lignariella
+ Petals white; pedicels glabrous.   (59)
       
59 (58) Filaments of median stamens strongly flattened, 1-toothed; stigma 2-lobed   25 Platycraspedum
+ Filaments of median stamens slender, toothless; stigma entire.   (60)
       
60 (59) Leaf margin with mucronate callosities at vein endings; ovules 6-10 per ovary   89 Eutrema
+ Leaf margin without mucronate callosities; ovules more than 14 per ovary   43 Cardamine
       
61 (56) Filaments of median stamens winged, toothed, or appendaged.   (62)
+ Filaments of median stamens slender, not toothed or appendaged.   (63)
       
62 (61) Petals emarginate, 4-5.5 mm wide; ovules 2 per ovary   22 Hemilophia
+ Petals obtuse; ca. 2.5 mm wide; ovules ca. 8 per ovary   62 Lepidostemon
       
63 (61) Plants with a distinct caudex; stigma 2-lobed.   (64)
+ Plants with a fleshy, obconical to fusiform taproot; stigma entire.   (65)
       
64 (63) Leaves entire; ovules 4-8 per ovary; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments   45 Phaeonychium
+ Leaves dentate; ovules 14-26 per ovary; nectar glands 2, lateral   57 Desideria
       
65 (63) Cauline leaves sessile; racemes not elongated in fruit; anthers distinctly apiculate at apex   24 Dilophia
+ Cauline leaves petiolate; racemes often elongated in fruit; anthers obtuse at apex   88 Taphrospermum
       
66 (55) Some or all leaves trifoliolate, pinnately compound, or pinnatisect.   (67)
+ Leaves simple, entire, dentate, lyrate, or rarely pinnatifid.   (70)
       
67 (66) Petals purple or pink; ovaries and fruit didymous; ovules 2 per ovary; taproot thick, 1-4 cm in diam.   16 Megacarpaea
+ Petals white (purple in some Cardamine); ovaries and fruit not didymous; ovules more than 2 per ovary (except some Yinshania); taproot almost always not fleshy.   (68)
       
68 (67) Sepals, petals, and stamens spreading; petals 1.5-3.5(-4) mm; ovules often 10 or less per ovary   26 Yinshania
+ Sepals, petals, and stamens usually erect to ascending; petals more than 4 mm (except in weedy spp. of Cardamine); ovules more than 14 per ovary.**   (69)
       
69 (68) Fruit latiseptate, valves coiled during dehiscence; seeds uniseriate   43 Cardamine
+ Fruit terete, valves not coiled during dehiscence; seeds (ours) biseriate   61 Nasturtium
       
70 (66) Ovules 2 per ovary.   (71)
+ Ovules 4 or more per ovary.   (76)
       
71 (70) Filaments of median stamens with a lateral tooth 0.5-1 mm; pistil 2-segmented   7 Crambe
+ Filaments of median stamens toothless; pistil unsegmented.   (72)
       
72 (71) Leaves palmately veined   89 Eutrema
+ Leaves pinnately veined.   (73)
       
73 (72) Nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments.   (74)
+ Nectar glands 4 or 6, distinct.**   (75)
       
74 (73) Racemes many, grouped in corymbose panicles; plants often densely pubescent   12 Cardaria
+ Racemes few, not grouped in panicles; plants glabrous or sparsely pilose   35 Bunias
       
75 (73) Fruit 4-angled; caudex thick, with petiolar remains of previous years; racemes grouped in panicles   27 Stroganowia
+ Fruit flat; caudex often thin, with or without petiolar remains of previous years; racemes simple, rarely grouped in corymbose panicles   10 Lepidium
       
76 (70) Leaves palmately veined.   (77)
+ Leaves pinnately veined.   (80)
       
77 (76) Leaf margin with apiculate callosities at vein endings, if without then ovules 10 or less.   (78)
+ Leaf margin without apiculate callosities at vein endings.   (79)
       
78 (77) Pistil linear; ovules (20-)30-40 per ovary   47 Neomartinella
+ Pistil oblong; ovules 4-10 per ovary   89 Eutrema
       
79 (77) Perennials; fruit flattened; seeds reticulate   43 Cardamine
+ Biennials; fruit quadrangular-subterete; seeds longitudinally striate   87 Alliaria
       
80 (76) Cauline leaves auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul at base, if not (Thellungiella parvula) then petals to 1.5 mm and racemes flexuous.   (81)
+ Cauline leaves not auriculate or sagittate, or absent.   (84)
       
81 (80) Petals purple, 10-17 mm; perennials with stout rhizomes   43 Cardamine
+ Petals white, lavender, pink, or rarely purple, 1.5-7 mm; annuals, biennials, or perennials with a slender caudex.   (82)
       
82 (81) Plants not glaucous; pistil and young fruit angustiseptate   18 Thlaspi
+ Plants glaucous; pistil and young fruit terete or latiseptate.   (83)
       
83 (82) Petals 5-7 mm, with purple veins extending to apex; leaves deeply cordate-amplexicaul   9 Conringia
+ Petals 1.5-3 mm, without purple veins; leaves auriculate or not, rarely deeply sagittate-amplexicaul   97 Thellungiella
       
84 (80) Cauline leaves absent or 1 or 2, entire.   (85)
+ Cauline leaves several, dentate, crenate, or pinnatifid.   (87)
       
85 (84) Cauline leaves absent, basal ones setose ciliate; stigma 2-lobed; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all stamens   45 Phaeonychium
+ Cauline leaves 1 or 2, rarely absent, basal ones pilose or crisped pubescent; stigma entire; nectar glands 2 or 4, lateral.   (86)
       
86 (85) Petals 10-17 mm; fruit flat, prominently veined, 10-30 mm   64 Solms-laubachia
+ Petals 4-6 mm; fruit terete, not veined, 4-7 mm   96 Braya
       
87 (84) Racemes in large corymbose panicles; fruit angustiseptate; leaves polymorphic on same plant   42 Armoracia
+ Racemes simple; fruit latiseptate; leaves not polymorphic.   (88)
       
88 (87) Stigma 2-lobed; petals purple, 10-15 mm   57 Desideria
+ Stigma entire; petals white, 2.5-8(-10) mm.**   (89)
       
89 (88) Anthers obtuse at apex; fruit with a prominent midvein and marginal veins; cotyledons accumbent   49 Sisymbriopsis
+ Anthers apiculate at apex; fruit obscurely veined or only with a distinct midvein; cotyledons incumbent   56 Christolea
       
90 (13) Petal claws crisped pilose; filaments of median stamens united at base   95 Synstemon
+ Petal claws glabrous or petals absent; filaments of median stamens free, if united then stigma strongly 2-lobed.   (91)
       
91 (90) Cauline leaves 1-3-pinnatisect, narrowly trifid, or 3-5-foliolate.   (92)
+ Cauline leaves undivided, lyrate, or pinnatifid.   (100)
       
92 (91) Pulvinate perennials with thick caudices covered with petiolar remains of previous years   101 Smelowskia
+ Annuals, biennials, or non-pulvinate perennials, without petiolar remains of previous years.   (93)
       
93 (92) Flowers yellow.   (94)
+ Flowers white, pink, or lavender.   (95)
       
94 (93) Pistil and fruit linear; ovules 20-40 per ovary; raceme ebracteate   99 Descurainia
+ Pistil and fruit obovoid to ellipsoid; ovules 16 or less per ovary; raceme bracteate, if not then ovules 4-8 per ovary   100 Sophiopsis
       
95 (93) Racemes bracteate throughout or at least along proximal half.   (96)
+ Racemes ebracteate.   (97)
       
96 (95) Pistil oblong to suborbicular; fruit angustiseptate   20 Hedinia
+ Pistil linear; fruit terete   102 Sinosophiopsis
       
97 (95) Stigma conical, 2-lobed; filaments of median stamens united   73 Leptaleum
+ Stigma capitate, entire; filaments of median stamens free.   (98)
       
98 (97) Racemes grouped in panicles; ovary and fruit ellipsoid   26 Yinshania
+ Racemes simple; ovary and fruit linear.   (99)
       
99 (98) Rachis of raceme flexuous; ovules 6-20 per ovary; trichomes exclusively dendritic; uppermost leaves narrowly trifid   91 Ianhedgea
+ Rachis of raceme straight; ovules 20-40 per ovary; trichomes simple and forked; uppermost cauline leaves pinnatisect   102 Sinosophiopsis
       
100 (91) Plants exclusively or at least uppermost parts with malpighiaceous trichomes.   (101)
+ Plants without malpighiaceous trichomes.   (106)
       
101 (100) Flowers yellow.   (102)
+ Flowers white, lavender, pink, or purple.   (103)
       
102 (101) Pistil and fruit oblong; seeds biseriate; cotyledons accumbent   41 Draba
+ Pistil and fruit linear; seeds uniseriate; cotyledons incumbent   83 Erysimum
       
103 (101) Raceme bracteate throughout; rhizomatous perennials; filaments of median stamens inflated basally   22 Hemilophia
+ Raceme ebracteate; annuals; filaments of median stamens not inflated basally.   (104)
       
104 (103) At least lowermost parts with simple and stalked forked trichomes; fruit indehiscent, breaking at maturity into 1-seeded segments; stigma 2-lobed; seeds 2.5-3.5 mm   79 Cryptospora
+ Trichomes exclusively malpighiaceous; fruit dehiscent; stigma entire; seeds 0.7-1.4(-2) mm.   (105)
       
105 (104) Pistil and fruit lenticular, ovate, or suborbicular; anthers of median stamens 2-lobed; ovules 2 per ovary; raceme many flowered   38 Lobularia
+ Pistil and fruit linear; anthers of median stamens 1-lobed; ovules 10-25 per ovary; raceme 2-5-flowered   78 Atelanthera
       
106 (100) Sepals united   57 Desideria
+ Sepals free.   (107)
       
107 (106) Cauline leaves auriculate, sagittate, or amplexicaul.   (108)
+ Cauline leaves petiolate, tapered to a petiolelike base, or sessile but not auriculate or sagittate, sometimes absent and flowering stems leafless.   (116)
       
108 (107) Ovary and fruit oblong to ovate; seeds biseriate   41 Draba
+ Ovary and fruit of other shapes; seeds uniseriate.   (109)
       
109 (108) Flowers pale to bright yellow.   (110)
+ Flowers white, pink, or purple.   (113)
       
110 (109) Ovary and fruit globose, sublenticular, or obpyriform; nectar glands 2 or 4, lateral, median glands absent.   (111)
+ Ovary and fruit linear; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments.   (112)
       
111 (110) Fruit globose or sublenticular, 1.7-2.2 mm; ovules 2-4 per ovary; stamens slightly tetradynamous   34 Neslia
+ Fruit obpyriform, larger; ovules numerous per ovary; stamens in 3 pairs of unequal length   98 Camelina
       
112 (110) Plants pubescent with short-stalked or subsessile stellate trichomes; fruit pubescent; pedicels divaricate   52 Olimarabidopsis
+ Plants glabrous and glaucous distally, pubescent with simple and forked trichomes basally; fruit glabrous; pedicels appressed to rachis   59 Turritis
       
113 (109) Pistil and fruit obdeltoid to obcordate-obdeltoid   19 Capsella
+ Pistil and fruit linear.   (114)
       
114 (113) Plants with exclusively stellate, appressed, sessile trichomes   53 Pseudoarabidopsis
+ Plants with more than 1 kind of trichomes.**   (115)
       
115 (114) Fruit latiseptate; cotyledons accumbent   48 Arabis
+ Fruit terete; cotyledons incumbent   51 Crucihimalaya
       
116 (107) Shrubs or subshrubs   48 Arabis
+ Herbs.   (117)
       
117 (116) Filaments of median stamens united to apex or rarely only to middle.   (118)
+ Filaments of median stamens free.   (119)
       
118 (117) Plants without glandular trichomes; lateral sepals not saccate; fruit indehiscent, breaking at maturity into 1-seeded segments   80 Sterigmostemum
+ Plants sparsely to densely covered with glandular trichomes; lateral sepals saccate; fruit tardily dehiscent   81 Oreoloma
       
119 (117) Petals deeply bifid.   (120)
+ Petals undivided, entire or emarginate, or absent.   (121)
       
120 (119) Perennials with a distinct caudex; trichomes exclusively stellate, appressed; lateral sepals saccate   37 Galitzkya
+ Annuals or biennials; trichomes a mixture of simple, forked, and stellate; lateral sepals not saccate   39 Berteroa
       
121 (119) Ovaries and fruit about as long as broad or slightly longer, rarely to 3 × longer.   (122)
+ Ovaries and fruit at least 5 × longer than broad.   (137)
       
122 (121) Raceme bracteate throughout or rarely along proximal half.   (123)
+ Raceme ebracteate.   (126)
       
123 (122) Plants stoloniferous; ovules 2 or 4 per ovary.   (124)
+ Plants cespitose perennials or annuals; ovules more than 10 per ovary.   (125)
       
124 (123) Leaves entire; filaments of median stamens appendaged; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all stamens   22 Hemilophia
+ Leaves dentate; filaments of median stamens unappendaged; nectar glands 4, lateral, median glands absent   23 Dipoma
       
125 (123) Petals yellow; plants coarsely pilose; cotyledons accumbent   41 Draba
+ Petals purple or white; plants minutely puberulent; cotyledons incumbent   92 Aphragmus
       
126 (122) Lateral sepals saccate; stigma 2-lobed; petals linear, strongly differentiated into claw and limb, 0.7-1.5 cm.   (127)
+ Lateral sepals not saccate; stigma entire, if 2-lobed (Euclidium) then petals less than 1.5 mm; petals variously shaped and often smaller, if linear then not differentiated into claw and limb, sometimes absent.   (128)
       
127 (126) Petals pink, 7-10 mm; plants without glandular trichomes; fruiting pedicels erect-ascending; fruit densely white silky   29 Lachnoloma
+ Petals yellowish to creamy white, 10-15 mm; plants often with glandular trichomes; fruiting pedicels reflexed; fruit not silky   67 Microstigma
       
128 (126) Plant with glandular trichomes   35 Bunias
+ Plant without glandular trichomes.   (129)
       
129 (128) Filaments winged, appendaged, toothed, or papillate   36 Alyssum
+ Filaments slender, unappendaged, toothless, glabrous.   (130)
       
130 (129) Annuals.   (131)
+ Perennials.   (134)
       
131 (130) Stigma 2-lobed; petals less than 1.5 mm; fruit indehiscent   32 Euclidium
+ Stigma entire; petals more than 1.5 mm, if less or absent then ovary more than 6-ovuled; fruit dehiscent.   (132)
       
132 (131) Ovules 4 per ovary or fruit   36 Alyssum
+ Ovules 8 or more per ovary or fruit.   (133)
       
133 (132) Petals 0.6-1.2 mm; fruit angustiseptate; cotyledons incumbent   21 Hornungia
+ Petals larger, rarely absent; fruit latiseptate; cotyledons accumbent   41 Draba
       
134 (130) Plants stoloniferous; bases of median filaments broadly dilated   40 Coelonema
+ Plants cespitose, often with a distinct caudex; bases of median filaments not dilated.**   (135)
       
135 (134) Fruit 5-10 mm wide; style conical or subconical   58 Eurycarpus
+ Fruit rarely to 4 mm wide, if wider then stems leafy; style obsolete or cylindric.   (136)
       
136 (135) Fruit torulose; cotyledons incumbent   96 Braya
+ Fruit not torulose; cotyledons accumbent   41 Draba
       
137 (121) Stigma conical, lobes decurrent, connivent; sepals erect.   (138)
+ Stigma capitate, entire, if lobed then lobes neither decurrent nor connivent; sepals ascending or slightly spreading.   (141)
       
138 (137) Annuals; anthers 0.3-1.2 mm.   (139)
+ Perennials or biennials; anthers 2.5-4 mm.   (140)
       
139 (138) Lateral sepals not saccate; fruit 0.5-1.7 mm wide; seeds wingless   74 Malcolmia
+ Lateral sepals strongly saccate; fruit 3-6 mm wide; seeds winged   71 Cithareloma
       
140 (138) Petals linear, circinately involute; seeds winged; cotyledons accumbent   66 Matthiola
+ Petals obovate, flat; seeds wingless; cotyledons incumbent   75 Hesperis
       
141 (137) Petals less than 1.5 mm; mature ovaries and young fruits with 4, subapical horns   65 Tetracme
+ Petals more than 1.8 mm; ovaries and fruits without horns.   (142)
       
142 (141) Stems leafless.   (143)
+ Stems leafy.   (146)
       
143 (142) Petals yellow; nectar glands 2 or 4, lateral.**   (144)
+ Petals white, lavender, or pink; nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments.**   (145)
       
144 (143) Biennial, perennial, or rarely annual; seeds biseriate; fruit valves obscurely veined   41 Draba
+ Annuals; seeds uniseriate; fruit valves with a distinct midvein   55 Drabopsis
       
145 (143) Fruit valves with prominent midvein and marginal veins; cotyledons incumbent   45 Phaeonychium
+ Fruit valves obscurely veined or only midvein distinct; cotyledons accumbent   48 Arabis
       
146 (142) Pistils and fruit on a distinct gynophore to 5 mm; petals linear to linear-oblanceolate, length 9-12 × width   1 Macropodium
+ Pistil and fruit sessile; petals suborbicular, spatulate, oblanceolate, or rarely oblong, length-width ratio much less.   (147)
       
147 (146) Petals yellow   41 Draba
+ Petals white, lavender, or purple.   (148)
       
148 (147) All cauline leaves entire.   (149)
+ At least some cauline leaves dentate or lobed.   (152)
       
149 (148) Annuals; cotyledons incumbent.   (150)
+ Perennials; cotyledons accumbent.   (151)
       
150 (149) Trichomes simple and forked; style to 0.5 mm; ovules 40-70 per ovary   50 Arabidopsis
+ Trichomes mostly stellate, 4-6-rayed; style (1-)1.5-2.5 mm; ovules 6-14 per ovary   93 Berteroella
       
151 (149) Trichomes a mixture of simple, forked, or stellate   41 Draba
+ Trichomes exclusively stellate   54 Stevenia
       
152 (148) Filaments of median stamens winged basally; valves with thickened margin, base united persistently with replum   62 Lepidostemon
+ Filaments of median stamens not winged; fruit valves not thickened at margin, base readily separated from replum at dehiscence.   (153)
       
153 (152) Pistil or fruit glabrous.   (154)
+ Pistil or fruit pubescent.   (157)
       
154 (153) Trichomes exclusively simple and forked   50 Arabidopsis
+ At least some trichomes stellate or dendritic.**   (155)
       
155 (154) Fruit terete; cotyledons incumbent   51 Crucihimalaya
+ Fruit latiseptate; cotyledons accumbent.   (156)
       
156 (155) Seeds biseriate, wingless   41 Draba
+ Seeds uniseriate, winged or margined at least distally   48 Arabis
       
157 (153) Nectar glands 2 or 4, lateral, median glands absent; stigma often entire.**   (158)
+ Nectar glands confluent, subtending bases of all filaments; stigma often 2-lobed.   (159)
       
158 (157) Fruits latiseptate, not torulose; cotyledons accumbent; seeds biseriate   41 Draba
+ Fruits terete, torulose; cotyledons incumbent; seeds uniseriate   94 Neotorularia
       
159 (157) Petals 6-9 mm; cotyledons incumbent   45 Phaeonychium
+ Petals 2-4 mm (unknown in Desideria stewartii); cotyledons accumbent.**   (160)
       
160 (159) Valve apex readily separated from replum during dehiscence; fruiting pedicels appressed to rachis   49 Sisymbriopsis
+ Valve apex persistently united with replum; fruiting pedicels not appressed to rachis   57 Desideria

List of Keys

  • List of lower taxa


     

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  • Comments

    Ihsan A. Al-Shehbaz
    12/22/2004
    Taxon name changes since publication:

    • Coronopus integrifolius: change to Lepidium englerianum (Muschler) Al-Shehbaz

    • Coronopus didymus: change to Lepidium didymum Linnaeus

    • Cardaria draba subsp. draba: change to Lepidium draba Linnaeus

    • Cardaria draba subsp. chalapensis: change to Lepidium chalepense Linnaeus

    • Cardaria pubescens: change to Lepidium appelianum Al-Shehbaz

    • Thlaspi perfoliatum: change to Microthlaspi perfoliatum (Linnaeus) F. K. Meyer

    • Thlaspi andersonii: change to Noccaea andersonii (J. D. Hooker & Thomson) Al-Shehbaz

    • Thlaspi flagelliferum: change to Noccaea flagillferum (O. E. Schulz) Al-Shehbaz

    • Thlaspi yunnanense: change to Noccaea yunnanense (Franchet) Al-Shehbaz

    • Hedinia tibetica: change to Smelowskia tibetica (Thomson) Lipsky

    • Stroganowia brachyota: change to Lepidium brachyotum (Karelin & Kirilov) Al-Shehbaz

    • Coelonema draboides: change to Draba draboides (Maximowicz) Al-Shehbaz

    • Draba serpens: change to Hemilophia serpens (O. E. Schulz) Al-Shehbaz

    • Solms-laubachia minor: change to Solms-laubachia zhongdianensis J. P. Yue, Al-Shehbaz & H. Sun

    • Neotorularia humilis: change to Braya humilis (C. A. Meyer) B. L. Robinson

    • Neotorularia brachycarpa: change to Braya parvia (Z. X. An) Al-Shehbaz

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