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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 5 | Viscaceae

2. Arceuthobium Marschall von Bieberstein, Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 3: 629. 1819-1820.
[nom. cons.]

油杉寄生属 you shan ji sheng shu

Razoumofskya Hoffmann, nom. rej.

Subshrubs or herbs parasitic on gymnosperms, dioecious. Branches dichotomous or verticillate; stem internodes terete. Leaves reduced to scales, decussate, in 4 ranks, connate. Flowers axillary or terminal on branchlets, decussate or whorled; peduncle absent; pedicel short to nearly absent. Male flower subglobose or ovoid in mature bud; perianth lobes 3 or 4, ± rotate. Anthers sessile, inserted on perianth lobes, circular, 1-loculed, dehiscence transverse; central nectary present. Pollen grains subprolate, 3-lobed to circular in polar section. Female flower ovoid to ellipsoid in mature bud, epigynous; perianth tube short, 2-lobed, adnate to ovary, persistent. Placentation free, central. Style short; stigma obtuse. Berry ovoid or ellipsoid, apex different in texture from base, exocarp smooth, explosively dehiscent at maturity.

About 45 species: temperate and tropical regions of NE Africa, Asia, S Europe, and North America; five species (three endemic) in China.

All members of this genus induce “witches’ brooms,” which cause their hosts to suffer retarded growth and eventually die.

1 Male perianth lobes 4, ca. 1.5 mm in diam.; fruit ovoid, 4-6 mm; parasites of Keteleeria evelyniana and Picea likiangensis.   1 A. chinense
+ Male perianth lobes 3(or 4), 1-2 mm in diam.; fruit ellipsoid, 2-4 mm; parasites of Juniperus, Abies, Picea, and Pinus.   (2)
2 (1) Parasites of Cupressaceae (Juniperus); plants 5-16 cm tall; male flowers 2-2.5 mm in diam.   5 A. oxycedri
+ Parasites of Pinaceae (Abies, Picea, Pinus); plants 2-10 cm tall; male flowers 1.5-2.5 mm in diam.   (3)
3 (2) Plants 5-15(-20) cm tall; branches longer than 1 cm; male flowers 2-2.5 mm in diam., lobes 1-1.5 mm; parasites of Pinus densata, P. yunnanensis, P. griffithii.   2 A. pini
+ Plants usually less than 6 cm tall; branches less than 1 cm; male flowers 1.5-2 mm in diam.; parasites of Picea or Abies.   (4)
4 (3) Parasites of Picea; plants 2-6 cm tall; male perianth lobes ovate, ca. 1 mm.   3 A. sichuanense
+ Parasites of Abies; plants 0.5-4 cm tall; male perianth lobes subtriangular, ca. 1.2 mm.   4 A. tibetense

Lower Taxa


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