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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 9 | Rosaceae

49. ARMENIACA Scopoli, Meth. Pl. 15. 1754.

杏属 xing shu

Lu Lingdi (Lu Ling-ti); Bruce Bartholomew

Trees, rarely shrubs, deciduous. Branches unarmed, rarely spiny. Axillary wintern bud solitary; terminal winter bud absent. Stipules present. Leaves simple, alternate, convolute when young; petioles usually with 2 nectaries; leaf blade margin singly or doubly serrate. Inflorescences apparently axillary, 1–3-flowered. Flowers bisexual, regular, solitary or to 3 in a fascicle, opening before leaves or rarely with leaves. Pedicel nearly absent to very short, rarely longer. Hypanthium caducous in fruit. Sepals 5, imbricate. Petals 5, inserted on mouth of hypanthium, imbricate. Stamens 15–45, perigynous; filaments free, filiform. Carpel 1(or 2); ovary superior, hairy, 1-loculed; ovules 2, collateral, pendulous. Style terminal, elongated. Fruit a drupe, ± laterally compressed, hairy, rarely glabrous, with a conspicuous longitudinal groove; mesocarp succulent or fleshy, not splitting when ripe, rarely dry and splitting when ripe; endocarp hard, 2-valved, compressed on both sides, surface smooth, scabrous, or reticulate, rarely pitted, separating from or adnate to mesocarp. Seeds bitter or sweet.

About 11 species: E to SW Asia; ten species (five endemic) in China.

Armeniaca is widespread in China and is especially common in N China, but its distribution center is the middle and lower reaches of the Huang He. Many species and varieties are cultivated for their edible fruit and a few for their edible seeds. Many species are also grown as ornamentals. The seeds are sweet or bitter and are rich in oil and protein. Seeds are used as food or medicine and the oil is used in light industry. The high quality wood is also used commercially.

1 First year branchlets green.   10 A. mume
+ First year branchlets grayish brown to reddish brown.   (2)
2 (1) Leaf blade margin biserrate.   9 A. mandshurica
+ Leaf blade margin not biserrate.   (3)
3 (2) Drupe dark purplish red.   8 A. dasycarpa
+ Drupe yellow to yellowish red, rarely white, with or without a red tinge.   (4)
4 (3) Leaf blade usually glabrous on both surfaces, rarely abaxially pubescent in vein axils (sometimes adaxially white pubescent in A. vulgaris).   (5)
+ Leaf blade pubescent on both surfaces, somewhat glabrescent (often adaxially glabrous in A. hypotrichodes).   (7)
5 (4) Petiole 1.8–2.1 cm; leaf blade elliptic to obovate-elliptic; sepals not reflexed.   2 A. limeixing
+ Petiole 2–3.5 cm; leaf blade ovate, suborbicular, or suborbicular-ovate; sepals apically recurved or reflexed.   (6)
6 (5) Trees 5–8(–12) m tall; mesocarp succulent, not splitting when ripe.   1 A. vulgaris
+ Shrubs or trees 2–5 m tall; mesocarp dry, splitting when ripe.   3 A. sibirica
7 (4) Leaf blade ovate to elliptic-ovate, pubescent abaxially; fruiting pedicel 4–7 mm.   4 A. holosericea
+ Leaf blade elliptic, oblong, or lanceolate (sometimes elliptic-ovate in A. hongpingensis), densely villous abaxially; fruiting pedicel more than 7 mm.   (8)
8 (7) Leaf blade lanceolate, adaxially usually glabrous, apex acute; sepal margins ciliate-glandular.   7 A. hypotrichodes
+ Leaf blade elliptic to oblong, adaxially sparsely pubescent to pilose, apex acuminate to caudate; sepals margin not ciliate-glandular.   (9)
9 (8) Petioles densely pubescent; leaf blade elliptic to elliptic-ovate, densely yellowish brown villous abaxially, base rounded; endocarp ellipsoid, pitted.   5 A. hongpingensis
+ Petioles glabrous; leaf blade elliptic to oblong, densely grayish villous abaxially, base truncate, rarely rounded; endocarp narrowly ellipsoid, scabrous, shallowly reticulate, not pitted.   6 A. zhengheensis

  • List of lower taxa


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