草海桐科 cao hai tong ke
Authors: Deyuan Hong & Dianella G. Howarth
Herbs, shrubs, or rarely small trees [or vines], without laticifers. Stipules absent. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite or whorled, simple. Inflorescences a cyme, raceme, head, or sometimes single flowered in axils. Flowers perfect, protandrous. Calyx epigynous, tubular, mostly (3-)5-lobed. Corolla sympetalous, irregular, 2-lipped or sometimes 1-labiate due to 2-segmentation of posterior lip to base; lobes 5, valvate, often induplicate. Stamens 5, alternate with corolla lobes, free from corolla or adnate to base of corolla tube; anthers 4-sporangiate and dithecal, introrse, longitudinally dehiscent. Ovary inferior, semi-inferior [or rarely (Velleia Smith) essentially superior], (1 or)2-locular [occasionally 4-locular (Scaevola porocarya F. Mueller)]; ovules 1 to many per locule, on axile or basal-axile placentas, anatropous. Fruit usually a capsule, less often a drupe or a small nut, often with persistent calyx. Seeds with a straight embryo embedded in copious endosperm.
Twelve genera and ca. 400 species: pantropical and extending into subtropics; two genera and three species in China.
The greatest diversity of the family is in Australia.
Pollen presentation mechanism in the family is complex. The anthers are connivent or connate to form a tube into which pollen grains shed. The style, with a cupular indusium below the small stigma, grows up through the anther tube and collects the pollen grains, which are subsequently deposited or brushed onto visiting insects.
Hong De-yuan. 1983. Goodeniaceae. In: Hong De-yuan, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 73(2): 177-180.