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10. Hymenophyllaceae

膜蕨科 mo jue ke

Authors: Liu Jiaxi, Zhang Qiaoyan, Atsushi Ebihara & Kunio Iwatsuki

Plants epiphytic, petrophilous, or terrestrial, small to medium-sized. Rhizome sometimes short and erect, but usually slender and long creeping, often covered with hairs when young, simple or sometimes irregularly branching. Lamina simple to pinnately decompound, or flabellate, digitate, dichotomous, or even irregularly divided. Segments with a single veinlet, cells in one layer, or rarely with 2-4 cell layers without intercellular spaces and stomata. Sori terminal on veins, solitary, at apex of ultimate segments, or marginal on simple to pinnatifid fronds; involucres cup-shaped to deeply 2-cleft nearly to base; receptacles terminating a vein, short, capitate or clavate, or long and projecting; sporangia shortly stalked to (sub)sessile, maturing basipetally; annulus oblique, not interrupted; dehiscence irregular; spores globose-trilete, tetrahedral, containing chloroplasts, usually short-lived. x = 8, 11, 12, 13, 17, 21, 22, 26, 28, 36, 54 (base numbers x = 8, 54 are doubtful).

Nine genera and ca. 600 species: tropical, subtropical, and temperate regions of both the Old and New Worlds; seven genera and 50 species (six endemic) in China.

Traditionally, only two genera-Hymenophyllum with bivalved involucres and Trichomanes Linnaeus with tubular involucres-have been recognized in this family. This scheme was expanded by Morton (Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 29: 139-202. 1968) who hierarchically placed many subgenera, sections, and subsections under two larger genera, Hymenophyllum and Trichomanes, and recognized four monotypic genera, Cardiomanes Morton, Serpyllopsis Morton, Hymenoglossum Morton, and Rosenstockia Morton, all of which have specialized fronds. Conversely, Copeland (Gen. Fil. 31-44. 1947) split the family into 34 genera, basing his work on herbarium specimens as well as his field observations of Asian material. Taking into account these past studies plus recent investigations including molecular data, Ebihara et al. (Blumea 51: 221-280. 2006) proposed a modern scheme of classification on which the system of this treatise is based.

Ching Ren-chang, Fu Shu-hsia, Wang Chu-hao & Shing Gung-hsia. 1959. Hymenophyllaceae. In: Ching Ren-chang, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 2: 132-196, 350-357, 379.

1 Rhizomes shortly creeping or erect   (2)
+ Rhizomes long creeping   (6)
2 (1) Fronds once pinnate to bipinnatifid.   3 Cephalomanes
+ Fronds bipinnate or more divided   (3)
3 (2) Stipes and rachises with long bristlelike light reddish hairs   (4)
+ Stipes and rachises without long bristlelike light reddish hairs   (5)
4 (3) Laminar cells reduced, less than 3 rows of cells between midribs and margins.   1 Abrodictyum
+ Laminar cells not reduced, more than 3 rows of cells between midribs and margins.   2 Callistopteris
5 (3) Laminar cell walls thin and straight; fronds usually more than 25 cm.   4 Crepidomanes
+ Laminar cell walls slightly thick or very thick, wavy or pitted; fronds usually less than 25 cm.   1 Abrodictyum
6 (1) Rhizomes subglabrous or with sparse light-colored hairs; involucres usually bivalvate.   5 Hymenophyllum
+ Rhizomes covered with reddish to dark-colored hairs; involucres usually not bivalvate   (7)
7 (6) Roots absent or replaced by rootlike shoots   (8)
+ Roots present   (9)
8 (7) Continuous false veinlets parallel to true veins present; blade venation catadromous.   6 Didymoglossum
+ Continuous false veinlets parallel to true veins absent; blade venation anadromous.   4 Crepidomanes
9 (7) Stipes and rachises with minute clavate hairs.   7 Vandenboschia
+ Stipes and rachises without minute clavate hairs.   1 Abrodictyum

Lower Taxa


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