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34. Icacinaceae

茶茱萸科 cha zhu yu ke

Authors: Hua Peng & Richard A. Howard

Trees, shrubs, or lianas, occasionally with tendrils. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, estipulate, veins mostly pinnate, sometimes palmate, margin usually entire, rarely lobed or denticulate. Inflorescences spikes, racemes, panicles, or cymes, axillary or terminal, rarely opposite leaves, with small bracts or not. Flowers regular, bisexual, sometimes polygamous or unisexual, (3 or)4- or 5(or 6)-merous. Calyx generally articulate to pedicel, usually persistent, small; lobes imbricate, rarely valvate. Petals present, rarely absent, free or connate at base, imbricate, rarely valvate, apices mostly inflexed or incurved. Stamens as many as petals; filaments free or on corolla tube, alternate with corolla lobes, often pilose at apex; anthers 2-celled, introrse. Disk rarely developed, cupular or divided. Ovary superior, 2-carpellate, coherent, 1-loculed, rarely 3-5-loculed; ovules 2, rarely 1 per locule, pendulous from apex, anatropous with abaxial raphe and micropyle facing upward; funicle usually thickened above micropyle; style rarely developed, simple; stigmas 2(or 3-5), or coherent to capitate or peltate. Fruit 1-loculed, 1-seeded, rarely 2-seeded, usually a drupe, rarely samaroid. Seeds pendulous, with a thin testa; endosperm usually present, embryo small, straight or curved; cotyledons usually ovate.

About 57 genera and 400 species: mainly in tropical or subtropical regions, especially in the S Hemisphere; 12 genera and 24 species (eight endemic) in China.

Chuang Hsuan. 1981. Icacinaceae (excluding Peripterygium). In: Fang Wen-pei, ed., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 46: 37-65.

The Icacinaceae were treated in a broad sense in FRPS, i.e., including Cardiopteris (Peripterygium), which is here recognized as a distinct monogeneric family.

1 Trees or erect shrubs   (2)
+ Lianas or climbing shrubs   (7)
2 (1) Flowers unisexual or plants polygamo-dioecious   (3)
+ Flowers bisexual   (5)
3 (2) Large trees; young branches, young leaves, and inflorescences with appressed stellate scales; filaments shorter than anthers.   1 Platea
+ Shrubs or small trees; branches, leaves, and inflorescences without stellate scales; filaments ca. 2 × or more longer than anthers   (4)
4 (3) Cymes di- or trichotomous, axillary, terminal, or opposite leaves; drupe usually with persistent stigma; calyx gamosepalous, cupular; filaments free from corolla tube, often pilose.   2 Gomphandra
+ Spikes or racemes axillary; drupe without persistent stigma; calyx chorisepalous at least apically; filaments inserted on corolla tube, glabrous.   3 Gonocaryum
5 (2) Ovary obliquely gibbous, style eccentric; fruit with basal disciform fleshy appendage.   4 Apodytes
+ Ovary gibbous, style centric; fruit without fleshy appendage   (6)
6 (5) Petals spatulate, free at base, inside glabrous; connective protruding; disk complete, connate with ovary; fruit with a thin mesocarp; leaf margin sinuate.   5 Pittosporopsis
+ Petals loriform, connate at base, hairy; connective not protruding; disk divided into 5 leaflike lobes; fruit with a fleshy mesocarp; leaf margin entire.   6 Nothapodytes
7 (1) Leaves opposite or subopposite, tendrils present; leaf margin entire   (8)
+ Leaves alternate, tendrils absent; leaf margin serrulate   (9)
8 (7) Petals hairy, coherent, campanulate-funnelform, fleshy; filaments slender, upward gradually dilated into a connective.   7 Mappianthus
+ Petals outside densely hairy, coherent only at base; filaments much shorter than anthers.   8 Iodes
9 (7) Flowers bisexual, in cymes.   9 Hosiea
+ Flowers unisexual, in spikes or racemes   (10)
10 (9) Petals absent; flowers in spikes.   10 Pyrenacantha
+ Petals present; flowers in racemes   (11)
11 (10) Calyx 5-lobed; corolla choripetalous; leaf blade sparsely serrulate, palmately veined; flowers in extra-axillary racemes.   11 Natsiatum
+ Calyx 4-lobed; corolla gamopetalous, tubular; leaf margin sinuate; flowers in several axillary fascicled racemes.   12 Natsiatopsis

  • List of lower taxa


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