All Floras      Advanced Search
FOC Vol. 19 Page 505, 506, 530 Login | eFloras Home | Help
FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 19 | Campanulaceae

9. Campanula Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 163. 1753.

风铃草属 feng ling cao shu

Authors: Deyuan Hong, Thomas G. Lammers & Laura L. Klein

Neocodon Kolakovsky & Serdyukova.

Herbs, perennial, with long horizontal rhizomes or with short caudexes and thickened ± fleshy roots; less often annual. Basal leaves sometimes rosulate; cauline leaves all alternate. Flowers solitary and terminal, or in cymes; cymes paniculate or capitellate, later subtended by an involucre. Calyx adnate to ovary; lobes 5, sometimes with an appendage between lobes. Corolla campanulate, tubular-campanulate, or funnelform, sometimes subrotate, 5-lobed. Filaments dilated; anthers coherent or rarely connate. Disk absent. Ovary inferior, 3-5-locular. Capsules dehiscent by lateral, upper or lower pores, crowned by persistent calyx lobes. Seeds numerous, ellipsoid, smooth.

About 420 species: throughout the Arctic and N temperate regions, most abundant from the Mediterranean to the Caucasus; 22 species (11 endemic) in China.

1 Capsule poricidal above middle; flowers solitary, terminal, or several terminal on main stems and branches; cauline leaves mostly toward base, upper cauline leaves sessile or nearly so, usually linear if present; basal leaves persistent at anthesis (2. C. subg. Rapunculus)   (2)
+ Capsule poricidal toward base; stems with numerous flowers, solitary or in various types of inflorescences; leaves many and evenly distributed on stems; basal leaves usually wilted at anthesis (1. C. subg. Campanula)   (8)
2 (1) Plants with horizontal rhizomes; stems simple; stems and leaves glabrous   (3)
+ Plants without horizontal rhizomes; stems simple or branched; stems and leaves variously pubescent   (5)
3 (2) Hypanthium narrowly cylindrical; calyx lobes filiform, longer than corolla.   21 C. aristata
+ Hypanthium obovoid or obconic; calyx lobes subulate or narrowly triangular, shorter than corolla   (4)
4 (3) Plants 20-50 cm tall; middle cauline leaves longer than 2 cm; calyx lobes 5-9 mm; corolla 15-20 mm, cleft for ca. 1/2 its length.   16 C. stevenii
+ Plants 7-22 cm tall; middle cauline leaves shorter than 2 cm; calyx lobes 1.8-5 mm; corolla 4-11 mm, cleft for ca. 1/3 its length.   22 C. immodesta
5 (2) Flowers pendent   (6)
+ Flowers erect   (7)
6 (5) Plants 20-50 cm tall; calyx lobes 1-5.5 mm; corolla lobes as long as tube.   17 C. delavayi
+ Plants 6-33 cm tall; calyx lobes 3-12 mm; corolla lobes ca. 1/2 as long as tube.   18 C. crenulata
7 (5) Basal leaves cordate-reniform; stems slender but not filiform, hairy, lower half with cordate to ovate-lanceolate leaves; capsule 4-8 mm.   19 C. calcicola
+ Basal leaves cordate; stems filiform, glabrous or subglabrous, with mostly linear leaves; capsule 9-19 mm.   20 C. chrysospleniifolia
8 (1) Appendages between calyx lobes present, reflexed, setose on margins   (9)
+ Appendages between calyx lobes absent   (11)
9 (8) Annuals, ca. 6 cm tall; corolla 6-8 mm, green.   3 C. gansuensis
+ Perennials, over 25 cm tall; corolla 9-65 mm, white, purple, or yellow   (10)
10 (9) Corolla large, 3-6.5 cm, punctate.   1 C. punctata
+ Corolla smaller, narrowly campanulate, less than 1.5 cm, not punctate.   2 C. sibirica
11 (8) Flowers in a head of 2 to several in axils of involucral bracts, several heads aggregated into a large compound head; leaf blades more than 4 cm, often up to 17 cm   (12)
+ Flowers solitary or in a lax inflorescence; leaves usually much smaller, up to 6 cm   (14)
12 (11) Corolla lobes linear-lanceolate, longer than tube; plants ca. 10 cm tall.   6 C. austroxinjiangensis
+ Corolla lobes ovate, shorter than tube; plants 14-130 cm tall   (13)
13 (12) Lower cauline leaves long petiolate; calyx lobes subulate.   4 C. glomerata
+ Lower cauline leaves shortly winged-petiolate; calyx lobes ligulate, rounded at apex.   5 C. glomeratoides
14 (11) Leaves glabrous on both surfaces or hairy only on margins; corolla glabrous outside; calyx lobes linear or subulate, glabrous on both surfaces or sparsely ciliate   (15)
+ Leaves hairy on both surfaces; corolla ± hairy outside; calyx lobes hairy, narrowly triangular to subtriangular, rarely subulate-triangular (subulate only in C. mekongensis)   (16)
15 (14) Leaves and calyx lobes hispidulous on margins; blades of cauline leaves obovate-elliptic or elliptic.   7 C. nakaoi
+ Leaves and calyx lobes glabrous throughout; blades of cauline leaves linear.   8 C. langsdorffiana
16 (14) Annual herbs; rosulate basal leaves sometimes present at anthesis; each branch with compound cymes.   14 C. dimorphantha
+ Perennial herbs; basal leaves often absent at anthesis; branches with a single cyme or solitary flower   (17)
17 (16) Cauline leaves, at least lower ones, long petiolate; petiole 5-12 cm.   9 C. omeiensis
+ Cauline leaves sessile or shortly winged-petiolate   (18)
18 (17) Calyx tube hairy only along veins; lateral branches with several flowers; calyx lobes subulate, sinus between lobes truncate-obtuse.   15 C. mekongensis
+ Calyx tube densely hairy; lateral branches with a solitary flower or single simple inflorescence; calyx lobes subulate-triangular to deltoid, overlapping, or sinus acute   (19)
19 (18) Calyx lobes deltoid, with a pair of large teeth; stems long and prostrate; cauline leaves of lower half of stem wilted at anthesis, rest of leaves pannose abaxially, sessile, suborbicular.   13 C. yunnanensis
+ Calyx lobes subulate-triangular, rarely subdeltoid, with or without teeth; stems erect or diffuse; lower cauline leaves often present at anthesis; leaves sparsely hispid or densely pannose abaxially, elliptic, rhombic, or linear-elliptic   (20)
20 (19) Style strongly exserted; anthers completely or partially connivent; corolla cleft more than halfway.   12 C. chinensis
+ Style included; anthers completely free; corolla cleft down to middle   (21)
21 (20) Calyx lobes narrowly triangular to subdeltoid, toothed or not; leaves often hispid, less frequently pannose abaxially; stems single or several from one caudex, erect or ascending.   10 C. pallida
+ Calyx lobes subulate-triangular to narrowly triangular, rarely toothed; leaves densely pannose abaxially; stems usually numerous from one caudex, often diffuse, less often ascending.   11 C. cana

  • List of lower taxa


    Related Objects  
  • Campanula (PDF)
  • PDF

    Ornamental Plants From Russia And Adjacent States Of The Former Soviet Union  
  • Image/JPEG (Tatyana Shulkina)
  • Image/JPEG

  • Flora of China @
    Browse by
    Advanced Search

    Flora of China Home




     |  eFlora Home |  People Search  |  Help  |  ActKey  |  Hu Cards  |  Glossary  |