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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 4 | Betulaceae

3. Carpinus Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 998. 1753.

鹅耳枥属 e er li shu

Trees, sometimes shrubs, deciduous; bark fissured or smooth. Stipules deciduous. Leaves alternate, irregularly and doubly or simply serrate. Male inflorescence pendulous, spicate-cymose, cylindric, enclosed by buds during winter, with many overlapping bracts; flowers without bracteoles or perianth; stamens 3-12, inserted at base of bracts; filaments forked at apex; anthers 2-loculed, thecae separate, pubescent at apex. Female inflorescence terminal or axillary on dwarf shoots, racemose; flowers paired; bracts leaflike, complanate, overlapping, 2- or 3-lobed at base. Nutlet ribbed, enclosed by lobes of bracts or not.

About 50 species: China, India, Japan, Korea, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam; Europe, North and South America; 33 species (27 endemic) in China.

Because of inadequate material, Carpinus fargesiana has not been included in the key.

1 Bracts of female flowers densely overlapping, with an inflexed lobe or auricle at base of inner margin, completely covering nutlet; nutlet with very faint ribs.   (2)
+ Bracts of female flowers loosely overlapping, with an inflexed or flattened lobe or auricle at base of inner margin, not completely covering nutlet; nutlet with prominent ribs.   (4)
2 (1) Female inflorescence to 50 cm; leaves ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, lateral veins 24-34 on each side of midvein   1 Carpinus fangiana
+ Female inflorescence to 15 cm; leaves ovate, ovate-oblong, elliptic, or ovate-elliptic, lateral veins (10-)15-25 on each side of midvein.   (3)
3 (2) Leaves with 20-25 lateral veins on each side of midvein; inner margin of bracts subentire   2 Carpinus rankanensis
+ Leaves with (10-)15-20 lateral veins on each side of midvein; inner margin of bracts serrate   3 Carpinus cordata
4 (1) Bracts with lobes at bases of inner and outer margins.   (5)
5 (4) Bracts 2.5-3 cm, with subequal lobes at bases of both margins; nutlet 5-6 mm   4 Carpinus tientaiensis
+ Bracts 1.5-2(-2.5) cm, with unequal lobes at bases of both margins; nutlet 3-4 mm.   (6)
6 (5) Petiole robust, 4-7 mm, densely pubescent; nutlet with dense, brown, resinous glands and light yellow resin; outer margin of bracts entire or undulate-serrate   5 Carpinus londoniana
+ Petiole slender, (1-)1.5-3 cm, glabrous; nutlet with sparese, brown, resinous glands; outer margin of bracts dentate   6 Carpinus viminea

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