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6. Myristicaceae

肉豆蔻科 rou dou kou ke

Authors: Bingtao Li & Thomas K. Wilson

Evergreen trees, with tawny or red juice in bark or around heart wood. Leaves simple, alternate, entire, exstipulate, with pinnate veins, often pellucid punctate, spirally or distichously arranged. Inflorescences axillary, paniculate, racemose, capitate, or cymose; flowers fascicled, in various racemose arrangements or clusters; bracts caducous; bracteoles inserted on pedicels or at base of perianth. Plants monoecious or dioecious. Flowers small, unisexual. Perianth gamophyllous; lobes (2 or)3-5, valvate. Stamens 2-40 (often 16-18 in China); filaments connate into a column (staminal column) or peltate disk (staminal disk), apex with anthers connivent or connate into disciform, globose, or elongate synandrium; anthers 2-locular, extrorse, dehiscing longitudinally, adnate to column abaxially, or free. Ovary superior, sessile, 1-locular, anatropous ovule 1, inserted near base; style short or lacking; stigma 2-lobed or lobes connate into a disk, with 2 fissures or with lacerate margin. Fruit with pericarp leathery-fleshy, or near woody, dehiscent into 2 valves. Seed 1, large, arillate; aril fleshy, entire or shallowly or deeply lacerate; testa of 3 or 4 layers, outer layer crustose, middle layer often woody and rather thick, inner layer membranous; endosperm often with volatile oil, ruminate or wrinkled, containing fat (mainly 14C fatty acid) and little amylum; embryo near base. Pollen often with slender reticulate pattern. x = 9, 21, 25.

About 20 genera and ca. 500 species: tropical Asia to Pacific islands, also in Africa and tropical America; three genera and 11 species (one introduced) in China.

Li Yan-hui. 1979. Myristicaceae. In: Tsiang Ying & Li Ping-t’ao, eds., Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 30(2): 176-205.

1 Pedicel without bracteole; male inflorescences complex panicles; aril entire or shallowly lacerate at apex.   3 Horsfieldia
+ Pedicel with bracteole; male inflorescences with flowers arranged in dense raceme or subumbellate; aril entire, lacerate at apex, or deeply laciniate almost to base   (2)
2 (1) Inflorescences unbranched (or bifurcate); filaments connate into a peltate disk, anthers short; stigmas discoid, shallowly bifid or margin dentate or lacerate; aril entire or lacerate at apex.   1 Knema
+ Inflorescences dichotomously branched; filaments connate into a column, anthers slender; stigmas shallowly bifid; aril deeply laciniate almost to base.   2 Myristica

Lower Taxa


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