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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 5 | Ulmaceae

8. Celtis Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 1043. 1753.

朴属 po shu

Solenostigma Endlicher.

Trees, deciduous or evergreen. Branchlets never spinose, never corky or winged. Winter buds with scales or not. Stipules 2, free, membranous or thickly papery, leaving a short transverse scar on each side of leaf base, caducous or terminal ones persistent and enveloping winter buds. Leaves alternate in several ranks; leaf blade margin entire or serrate; 3-veined from base; secondary veins anastomosing before reaching margin. Inflorescences panicles, racemes, or clustered cymelets. Flowers small, unisexual or bisexual. Tepals 4 or 5, basally slightly connate, caducous. Stamens equal in number to tepals. Style short; stigmas 2, linear. Ovary unilocular; ovule 1, anatropous. Male flowers: cauliflorus or clustered in proximal leaf axil of one-year-old branchlets. Female and bisexual flowers: usually borne apically in polygamous inflorescences. Fruit a drupe; endocarp bony, reticulately foveolate or nearly smooth. Endosperm scanty or lacking; embryo curved; cotyledons broad.

About 60 species: tropical and temperate areas; 11 species (four endemic) in China.

Most species yield fine timber, the bark is utilized for the manufacturing of ropes and paper, and the seed oil of most species is used for soaps and lubricants.

1 Trees, evergreen; flowers in dense cymes; infructescences often branched, each with 3 or 4 drupes and several prominent scars from fallen flowers.   (2)
+ Trees or shrubs, deciduous (sometimes evergreen in C. tetrandra); flowers solitary, fascicled, or in few-flowered racemes; infructescences simple, rarely forked, with 1(-3) drupes, rarely showing scars from fallen male flowers.   (3)
2 (1) Styles apically broadened and 2-cleft or emarginate; drupes globose to ellipsoid, apex and base rounded to obtuse; stipules ovate-lanceolate to ovate, enfolding naked terminal bud; leaf blade base symmetric or weakly asymmetric.   1 C. philippensis
+ Styles linear, undivided; drupes broadly ovoid, base rounded, apex conic-acute; stipules linear-lanceolate to linear, not enclosing scaly bud; leaf blade base distinctly asymmetric.   2 C. timorensis
3 (1) Drupe 9-15 mm; leaf blade margin toothed on apical half or almost to base, each margin with 13-28 teeth; petiole adaxially with a narrow and sharply defined furrow.   (4)
+ Drupe 5-9 mm; leaf blade margin toothed only on apical half or sometimes entire, each margin with 0-16 teeth (to 24 in C. chekiangensis); petiole adaxially with a broad and shallow furrow.   (7)
4 (3) Leaf blade margin deeply laciniate-toothed, teeth 4-8 mm, apex truncate with a caudate tip.   6 C. koraiensis
+ Leaf blade margin evenly toothed, teeth no more than 2 mm, apex never truncate.   (5)
5 (4) Leaf blade margin sharply toothed to near base, teeth 1-2 mm; drupe blackish blue, globose.   9 C. cerasifera
+ Leaf blade margin finely toothed in apical 1/3-2/3, teeth less than 1 mm; drupe yellow to orange, ellipsoid to globose.   (6)
6 (5) Petiole and leaf blade abaxially golden pubescent.   4 C. julianae
+ Petiole glabrous and leaf blade abaxially with tufts of hairs in vein axils or glabrous.   5 C. vandervoetiana
7 (3) Bud scales densely strigose; leaf blade with inconspicuous scattered appressed hairs on both surfaces or adaxially glabrous except sometimes for major veins.   3 C. biondii
+ Bud scales glabrous or inconspicuously puberulent; leaf blade adaxially glabrous except sometimes for major veins.   (8)
8 (7) Fruiting pedicel 0.4-1.5 cm, 1-2 × as long as subtending petiole; mature fruit yellow to orange.   (9)
+ Fruiting pedicel 1-2.5 cm, 1.7-5 × as long as subtending petiole; mature fruit red or purple.   (10)
9 (8) Drupe 7-8 mm in diam.; leaf blade base oblique, apex acuminate to shortly caudate-acuminate.   7 C. tetrandra
+ Drupe 5-7 mm in diam.; leaf blade base slightly oblique or not, apex shortly acuminate.   8 C. sinensis
10 (8) Drupe blackish blue; fruit stalks solitary in leaf axils.   10 C. bungeana
+ Drupe brownish red; fruit stalk often 2 or 3 per leaf axil.   11 C. chekiangensis

  • List of lower taxa


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