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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 25 | Orchidaceae

10. Cheirostylis Blume, Bijdr. 413. 1825.

叉柱兰属 cha zhu lan shu

Authors: Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb & Paul Ormerod

Arisanorchis Hayata; Gymnochilus Blume; Mariarisqueta Guinea.

Herbs, terrestrial or occasionally epiphytic, small. Rhizome decumbent, moniliform to terete, fleshy, with many contracted nodes; roots usually reduced to fine hairs and arranged along ridges on rhizome internodes, rarely fleshy and emerging from rhizome nodes. Stem erect, very short to elongate, glabrous, with 2 to several subrosulate or scattered cauline leaves. Leaves often withered at anthesis, ovate to cordate, with a short petiole-like base dilating into a tubular amplexicaul sheath. Inflorescence erect, terminal, racemose, very short to elongate, 1- to many flowered, glabrous to pubescent. Flowers resupinate, usually small, mostly not secund; ovary shortly pedicellate, twisted, fusiform, glabrous to pubescent. Sepals membranous, outer surface glabrous to pubescent, connate for half to almost entire length and forming a tube, or rarely free. Petals usually connivent with dorsal sepal; lip adnate to column margin at base, sometimes simple and entire though usually 3-partite; hypochile often dilated and saccate, containing fleshy, lobed or seriate (comblike) papillose calli; mesochile subtubular, short to elongate; epichile spreading, 2-lobed or rarely entire, margin laciniate, dentate, wavy, or entire. Column short, ventrally with 2 elongate armlike appendages (stelidia) parallel to rostellum; anther erect, ovoid, 2-locular; pollinia 2, each longitudinally 2-partite, granular-farinaceous, clavate, attached to solitary oblong viscidium; rostellum deeply bifid, 2 elongate arms erect, parallel; stigma lobes 2, separate, convex, rather large, placed laterally near apex of column and below rostellum. Capsule ellipsoid.

About 50 species: from tropical Africa through tropical Asia to New Guinea, Australia, and the Pacific islands; 17 species (eight endemic) in China.

Hayata considered species with an entire lip to comprise a distinct genus, Arisanorchis, but they conform to Cheirostylis in other respects (sepals basally fused and forming a tube, column with two elongate stelidia, rostellum deeply bifid) and are most likely peloric forms. A monographic revision of the genus is highly desirable given that overlapping species concepts remain a problem in separating taxa named from different regions. The endemic species of Taiwan and Hong Kong in particular remain poorly known and are in need of re-examination.

1 Leafy stem elongate, (1.5-)3-8 cm; leaves cauline, scattered, sometimes becoming clustered toward apex of stem; inflorescence shorter than, equal to, or sometimes slightly longer than (but always less than 2 × as long as) leafy stem   (2)
+ Leafy stem usually no more than 3 cm (rarely to 5 cm); leaves subrosulate or congested at base of stem; inflorescence at least 2 × as long as leafy stem   (7)
2 (1) Leaves elliptic-oblong, 5-7 cm; sepals free, not forming a tube.   1 C. tabiyahanensis
+ Leaves usually ovate, 0.4-3.2 cm; sepals connate for 1/2-3/5 of length and forming a tube   (3)
3 (2) Leaves up to 0.7 cm; sepals 2.5-3 mm.   2 C. pusilla
+ Leaves 1-3.2 cm; sepals 3-11 mm   (4)
4 (3) Inflorescence to 1 cm, peduncle often enclosed by leaf bases and not visible beyond stem apex; ovary glabrous; petals 9-10 mm; hypochile calli comblike, composed of several seriate papillose appendages   (5)
+ Inflorescence 2-7 cm, peduncle long, free of leaf bases and visible beyond stem apex; ovary pubescent or villous; petals 4-4.5 mm; hypochile calli bifid   (6)
5 (4) Apices of sepals acute; epichile without a tooth at apex between 2 lobes, lobes deeply 4- or 5-laciniate, each division 3-4 mm.   3 C. octodactyla
+ Apices of sepals obtuse; epichile with an acute tooth at apex between 2 lobes, lobes 5- or 6-laciniate, each division 1-2 mm.   4 C. pingbianensis
6 (4) Leaves ovate to lanceolate, 1.5-2.2 cm, petiole-like base and sheath 1.5-1.8 cm; epichile lobes deeply 4- or 5-laciniate.   5 C. tortilacinia
+ Leaves ovate-orbicular, 2-3 cm, petiole-like base and sheath 0.7-0.9 cm; epichile lobes wavy to shallowly 2- or 3-dentate, teeth broad with acute tips.   6 C. liukiuensis
7 (1) Lip simple, entire; hypochile lacking papillose calli   (8)
+ Lip 3-partite; epichile lobes dentate or laciniate at margin, hypochile containing papillose calli   (9)
8 (7) Ovary and outer surface of sepals glabrous; lip spatulate, 3-5 mm.   7 C. clibborndyeri
+ Ovary and outer surface of sepals pubescent; lip narrowly oblong, 6-8 mm.   8 C. takeoi
9 (7) Sepals and petals 13-15 mm; lip 15-17 mm.   9 C. griffithii
+ Sepals and petals 3-6.5(-9) mm; lip 5-12 mm   (10)
10 (9) Hypochile shortly spurred.   17 C. calcarata
+ Hypochile saccate, never spurred   (11)
11 (10) Hypochile divided by a longitudinal septum into 2 parts, each part with (1 or)2 horn-shaped calli.   13 C. malipoensis
+ Hypochile lacking a longitudinal septum; calli bifid or comblike   (12)
12 (11) Epichile lobes deeply laciniate, divisions narrowly linear; hypochile calli bifid   (13)
+ Epichile lobes irregularly dentate to wavy, teeth coarse, triangular with acute tips or truncate with obtuse tips; hypochile calli comblike, 3-6-toothed   (14)
13 (12) Rhizome moniliform, olive-green; leaves 0.8-1 cm wide, petiole-like base to 4 mm; lip 8-11.5 mm.   10 C. monteiroi
+ Rhizome torose, reddish; leaves 1.2-1.7 cm wide, petiole-like base 4-10 mm; lip 5-6 mm.   11 C. cochinchinensis
14 (12) Sepals and petals 5-6.5(-9) mm; lip 9-12 mm   (15)
+ Sepals and petals 3-4 mm; lip 5-7 mm   (16)
15 (14) Epichile deeply bilobed, apical margin obviously dentate.   12 C. yunnanensis
+ Epichile shallowly bilobed, apical margin obscurely denticulate to wavy.   14 C. thailandica
16 (14) Epichile lobes wavy to shallowly dentate, teeth truncate with obtuse tips; hypochile calli 2- or 3-lobed.   15 C. jamesleungii
+ Epichile margin distinctly dentate, teeth triangular with acute tips; hypochile calli 4-6-lobed.   16 C. chinensis

  • List of lower taxa


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