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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 8 | Saxifragaceae

14. Chrysosplenium Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 398. 1753.

金腰属 jin yao shu

Pan Jintang; Hideaki Ohba

Herbs perennial, small, usually with stolons, bulbs, or bulbils. Leaves alternate or opposite, petiolate, exstipulate, simple. Inflorescence a cyme surrounded by bracteal leaves, rarely flower solitary. Hypanthium ± adnate to ovary. Sepals 4(or 5), imbricate in bud. Petals absent. Disc absent, obscure, or distinctly (4 or)8-lobed, sometimes surrounded by brown papillae. Stamens 4 or 8(or 10); filaments subulate; anthers 2-loculed, laterally dehiscent; pollen grains minute, 3-colporoidate, with fine reticulum. Carpels 2, usually connate proximally; ovary subsuperior, semi-inferior, or subinferior, 1-loculed; placentas 2, parietal; ovules many; styles 2, free; stigmas punctate. Fruit a capsule, with 2 subequal or distinctly unequal carpels. Seeds many, ovoid to ellipsoid, smooth, papillose, tuberculate, puberulous, sulcate, or other texture.

About 65 species: Africa, America, Asia, Europe; 35 species (20 endemic) in China.

1 Cauline leaves opposite; bulbs and bulbils absent.   (2)
+ Cauline leaves alternate, sometimes only 1 or absent; bulbs or bulbils sometimes present.   (12)
2 (1) Capsule not truncate at apex, carpels subequal then erect or divergent.   (3)
+ Capsule subtruncate and retuse at apex, carpels subequal, horizontal; if capsule apex not truncate then carpels distinctly unequal and divaricate.   (4)
3 (2) Stems and leaves pilose; seeds with undulate, transverse lines   26 C. hebetatum
+ Stems and leaves glabrous, but sparsely brown papillose at axils and on leaves adaxially; seeds smooth, glabrous   25 C. nepalense
4 (2) Capsule truncate at apex, carpels distinctly unequal, divaricate.   (5)
+ Capsule subtruncate and retuse at apex, carpels subequal, horizontal.   (8)
5 (4) Seeds sulcate, ridges papillose   30 C. pilosum
+ Seeds not sulcate, papillose or puberulous.   (6)
6 (5) Disc distinct; ovary usually semi-inferior   29 C. cavaleriei
+ Disc obscure or absent; ovary semi-inferior or subsuperior.   (7)
7 (6) Terminal sterile branch leaves sometimes brown papillose abaxially; cauline leaves, flowering stems, inflorescence branches, pedicels, and bracteal leaves glabrous   27 C. sinicum
+ Terminal sterile branch leaves not brown papillose abaxially; flowering stems, inflorescence branches, and pedicels brown pilose; cauline leaves and bracteal leaves glabrous except margin ± ciliate   28 C. lectus-cochleae
8 (4) Flowering stems brown pilose; cauline leaves brown pilose adaxially; seeds smooth, glabrous   31 C. ramosum
+ Flowering stems glabrous or brown papillose; cauline leaves glabrous or brown papillose adaxially; seeds 13-16-sulcate, ridges marked by transverse lines (?except in C. lixianense).   (9)
9 (8) Cauline leaves sparsely brown papillose on both surfaces; flowers unisexual (plants dioecious); female flowers with stamens absent and disc 8-lobed, surrounded by sparse, brown papillae; male flowers with pistil obsolete and disc not surrounded by papillae   35 C. biondianum
+ Cauline leaves glabrous; flowers bisexual.   (10)
10 (9) Stolons arising from leaf axils, glabrous; cauline leaves distinctly obtusely 7-9-dentate   34 C. qinlingense
+ Stolons absent; cauline leaves obscurely 7-12-crenate.   (11)
11 (10) Cauline leaves broadly ovate or orbicular to flabellate, sparsely brown papillose abaxially; bracteal leaves sparsely brown papillose abaxially; sepals broadly suborbicular, apex retuse, with 1 brown papilla   32 C. delavayi
+ Cauline leaves reniform to broadly orbicular, glabrous; bracteal leaves glabrous; sepals broadly ovate to broadly orbicular, apex obtuse to acute   33 C. lixianense
12 (1) Seeds smooth, glabrous.   (13)
+ Seeds papillose or puberulous.   (24)
13 (12) Disc distinctly 8-lobed.   (14)
+ Disc obscure or absent.   (17)
14 (13) Stolons arising from leaf axils; proximal cauline leaves scalelike, distal ones ovate to broadly so or subspatulate to broadly obovate.   (15)
+ Stolons absent; leaves reniform or broadly orbicular-reniform.   (16)
15 (14) Distal cauline leaves ovate to broadly so, base rounded-cuneate; cyme remotely flowered or flowers solitary at leaf axils, pedicel barely 1.9 cm; sepals spreading, subrhombic   11 C. axillare
+ Distal cauline leaves subspatulate to broadly obovate, base cuneate; cyme 7-10-flowered, pedicel barely 0.7 cm; sepals erect, broadly orbicular   12 C. carnosum
16 (14) Plants 8.5-32.7 cm tall; stems glabrous; cauline leaves glabrous on both surfaces   9 C. griffithii
+ Plants 5-6.3 cm tall; stems brown crisped villous; cauline leaves brown pilose on both surfaces   10 C. fuscopuncticulosum
17 (13) Leaves not reniform.   (18)
+ Leaves reniform.   (20)
18 (17) Distal cauline leaves lanceolate to narrowly oblanceolate; sepals retuse at apex; styles and capsular carpels embedded in calyx, not visible   8 C. absconditicapsulum
+ Distal cauline leaves broadly obovate or broadly ovate; sepals obtuse at apex; styles or capsular carpels partly visible above calyx.   (19)
19 (18) Distal cauline leaves broadly obovate; stamens 1.6-2.2 mm, visible above calyx   6 C. oxygraphoides
+ Distal cauline leaves broadly ovate; stamens 1-1.5 mm, not visible above calyx   7 C. sikangense
20 (17) Stolons absent.   (21)
+ Stolons present.   (22)
21 (20) Plants to 20 cm or more tall; stem brown pilose and papillose at leaf axils, elsewhere glabrous, with 1 leaf; basal leaves shallowly 15-26-dentate at margin; sepals subspreading   1 C. forrestii
+ Plants barely 10 cm tall; stem brown pilose or papillose, usually without leaves; basal leaves shallowly 7-15-dentate at margin; sepals erect   2 C. nudicaule
22 (20) Bulbs absent; stolons usually subterranean, scaly; basal leaves pilose adaxially, cauline leaf usually 1, ± pubescent   3 C. serreanum
+ Bulb 1, subterranean; stolons above ground, glabrous; leaves glabrous.   (23)
23 (22) Leaves, bracteal leaves, and sepals distinctly brown spotted; flower solitary or cyme 2- or 3-flowered   5 C. uniflorum
+ Leaves, bracteal leaves, and sepals not distinctly brown spotted; cyme 6-15-flowered   4 C. giraldianum
24 (12) Disc obscure or absent.   (25)
+ Disc distinct, if obsolete then surrounded by dense, brown papillae.   (28)
25 (24) Stems glabrous; basal leaves reniform to orbicular-reniform   13 C. chinense
+ Stems brown villous; basal leaves broadly ovate to orbicular, or obovate to elliptic, sometimes oblong.   (26)
26 (25) Sterile branches absent; basal leaf margin 20-36-crenate, sometimes obscurely so; stamens shorter than sepals; capsule rostrums ca. 0.5 mm   16 C. glossophyllum
+ Sterile branches arising from proximal cauline leaf axils; basal leaf margin (7-)13-17-crenate, or undulate-crenulate to entire; stamens subequaling or longer than sepals; capsule rostrums 1-4 mm.   (27)
27 (26) Basal leaves broadly ovate to broadly subelliptic, (0.5-)2.1-4.2 × (0.7-)2-3.7 cm, brown pilose on both surfaces along veins and at margin, base usually subtruncate to subcordate, margin (7-)13-17-crenate; sepals usually orbicular; stamens 1-2 mm, subequaling sepals; capsule rostrums ca. 1 mm   14 C. davidianum
+ Basal leaves obovate, 2.3-19 × 1.3-11.5 cm, glabrous abaxially, brown pilose adaxially, base cuneate, margin undulate-crenulate or entire; sepals subovate to broadly ovate; stamens 4-6.5 mm, distinctly longer than sepals; capsule rostrums 3-4 mm   15 C. macrophyllum
28 (24) Disc usually obsolete, surrounded by dense, brown papillae.   (29)
+ Disc usually 8-lobed, rarely 4-lobed, not surrounded by brown papillae.   (31)
29 (28) Sterile branches present; stolons absent; basal leaves present; cauline leaf margin 5-9-crenate, teeth obtuse at apex   22 C. lanuginosum
+ Sterile branches absent; stolons sometimes present; basal leaves absent; cauline leaf margin shallowly 7-9-dentate, teeth retuse at apex.   (30)
30 (29) Stolons arising from proximal cauline leaf axils; leaves subflabellate to ± semiorbicular, brown pilose and papillose adaxially near base and at sinus, base broadly cuneate to truncate, margin shallowly 7-9-dentate; bracteal leaves flabellate to nearly semiorbicular, brown pilose adaxially near base; disc obsolete, surrounded by dense, brown papillae   24 C. taibaishanense
+ Stolons absent; leaves subreniform, brown pilose on both surfaces and at margin, base cordate, margin shallowly 9-dentate; bracteal leaves subreniform to broadly suborbicular, glabrous on both surfaces; disc 8-lobed, surrounded by sparse, brown papillae   23 C. jienningense
31 (28) Stems glabrous; cauline leaf petiole glabrous; basal leaves reniform to orbicular-reniform or broadly ovate to subreniform, cauline leaves broadly suborbicular or broadly ovate.   (32)
+ Stems ± brown pilose; petiole brown villous at base; leaves orbicular to reniform.   (33)
32 (31) Stolons arising from basal leaf axils; basal leaves reniform to orbicular-reniform, pilose adaxially, margin obtusely 12-18-dentate; cauline leaves broadly suborbicular, margin obtusely 5-dentate; inflorescence branches and pedicels glabrous; seeds sparsely puberulous   20 C. flagelliferum
+ Stolons absent; basal leaves broadly ovate to subreniform, glabrous on both surfaces, margin 8-crenate, teeth usually overlapping at margin; cauline leaves usually broadly subovate, margin 7- or 8-crenate; inflorescence branches and pedicels ± brown papillose; seeds densely papillose   21 C. microspermum
33 (31) Plants ca. 27 cm tall; basal leaves brown spotted; petiole 2.5-14 cm; leaf blade 2.3-8.5 × 2.4-8.5 cm, glabrous on both surfaces, margin undulate or 34-37-crenate, teeth colorless and narrow at margin; flowers 5-6 mm in diam.   17 C. hydrocotylifolium
+ Plants 8-15.5 cm tall; basal leaves unspotted; petiole 1.5-8 cm; leaf blade 0.6-2.2 × 0.9-2.5 cm, glabrous abaxially, pilose adaxially, margin shallowly 15-17-dentate or obscurely crenate; flowers ca. 3 mm in diam.   (34)
34 (33) Stems pilose; leaves subglabrous abaxially, margin shallowly dentate; inflorescence branches pilose; stamens (2 or)4(or 8); disc usually 4-lobed   18 C. japonicum
+ Stems pilose near base, elsewhere glabrous; leaves glabrous abaxially, margin crenate or obscurely so; inflorescence branches glabrous; stamens 8; disc not 4-lobed   19 C. wuwenchenii

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