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8. Violaceae

堇菜科 jin cai ke

Authors: Yousheng Chen, Qiner Yang, Hideaki Ohba & Vladimir V. Nikitin

Herbs annual or perennial, shrubs, or subshrubs, sometimes scandent, rarely small trees. Leaves simple, usually alternate, sometimes opposite, with small or leaflike stipules, petiolate, margin entire, serrate, or dissected. Flowers bisexual or unisexual, rarely polygamous, actinomorphic or zygomorphic, solitary or in axillary or terminal, spicate, paniculate, or racemose inflorescences, 2-bracteolate, sometimes cleistogamous. Sepals 5, equal or unequal, imbricate, persistent. Petals 5, imbricate or convolute, unequal, anterior one usually larger than others, saccate, gibbous or spurred at base. Stamens 5; anthers erect, free or connivent or connate, connectives often dilated into membranous appendages; filaments very short or absent, anterior 2 stamens with spurlike nectary at base. Ovary superior, 1-loculed, 3-5-carpelled, syncarpous, with 3-5 parietal placentae each with 1 to many anatropous ovules; style simple; stigmas variously shaped. Fruit a loculicidal capsule, usually with elastic and abaxially carinate valves, rarely baccate. Seeds often carunculate; testa hard, nitid, often with oily bodies, sometimes alate; endosperm copious, fleshy; embryo erect.

Twenty-two genera and 900-1000 species: worldwide, but particularly in tropical regions; three genera and 101 species (36 endemic, three introduced) in China.

Wang Chingrui. 1991. Violaceae. Fl. Reipubl. Popularis Sin. 51: i-v, 1-148.

1 Shrubs or trees; inflorescences mostly more than 5-flowered; flowers actinomorphic, not spurred, not cleistogamous.   1 Rinorea
+ Herbs or subshrubs; inflorescences 1-3-flowered; flowers distinctly zygomorphic (lowest petal spurred), or cleistogamous   (2)
2 (1) Subshrubs; sepals basally not auriculate.   2 Hybanthus
+ Herbs; sepals basally auriculate.   3 Viola

Lower Taxa


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