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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 13 | Araliaceae

10. Dendropanax Decaisne & Planchon, Rev. Hort. (Paris), sér. 4. 3: 107. 1854.

树参属 shu shen shu

Gilibertia Ruiz & Pavón (1794), not J. F. Gmelin (1791), nor Giliberta Cothenius (1790); Textoria Miquel.

Trees or shrubs, evergreen, hermaphroditic or andromonoecious, unarmed, glabrous. Leaves simple or palmately 2- or 3(-5)-lobed, often with yellow or red glandular punctae (glands sometimes evident only under transmitted light), margins entire or with few irregular teeth; stipules small and united or absent. Inflorescence a terminal simple umbel, a small raceme of umbels, or a compound umbel. Pedicels not articulate below ovary. Calyx entire or 5-toothed. Petals 5, valvate. Stamens 5. Ovary (2-)5-carpellate; styles distinct or united basally or throughout into a column. Fruit a drupe. Seeds laterally compressed; endosperm uniform.

About 80 species: tropical America, E Asia; 14 species (seven endemic) in China.

1 Styles united throughout their length into a single column, not divided apically in fruit, stigmas sessile   (2)
+ Styles partially or entirely divided, with evident (sometimes small) free arms apically   (5)
2 (1) Secondary and tertiary veins on leaves prominently raised on both surfaces, leaves all unlobed.   11 D. caloneurus
+ Secondary and tertiary veins on leaves weakly raised or obscure, leaves often dimorphic, some unlobed and some deeply 2- or 3-cleft   (3)
3 (2) Trees to 18 m tall; inflorescence a panicle of (2 or)3-5 umbels, with an evident primary axis 1-4(-5.5) cm.   12 D. hainanensis
+ Shrubs or small trees to ca. 3 m tall; inflorescence of 1(or 2) or 3-5 umbels usually borne from a single point   (4)
4 (3) Plants andromonoecious, inflorescence often with 1 umbel of bisexual flowers and (2 or)3 or 4 umbels of later-blooming male flowers; peduncles of bisexual umbels 3-6 cm; leaves usually glandular punctate.   13 D. trifidus
+ Plants hermaphroditic, inflorescence of 1-3(-5) umbels of bisexual flowers; peduncles 0.5-2.5 cm; leaves usually not glandular punctate.   14 D. proteus
5 (1) Ovary 2-4-carpellate, style arms 2-4; fruit not ribbed when dry   (6)
+ Ovary 5-carpellate, style arms 5; fruit usually ribbed when dry   (9)
6 (5) Ovary (3 or)4-carpellate, styles (3 or)4; calyx with 5 persistent triangular teeth 0.5-0.8 mm high.   7 D. oligodontus
+ Ovary 2- or 3-carpellate, styles 2 or 3; calyx entire or minutely 5-toothed   (7)
7 (6) Styles appressed into a column at anthesis, then divided only apically in fruit.   8 D. kwangsiensis
+ Styles free for at least 1/2 their length, divergent apically in flower and fruit   (8)
8 (7) Leaves ovate-oblong, 7-18(-22) × 2-5(-7) cm, with 6-12 pairs of lateral veins.   9 D. stellatus
+ Leaves obovate-oblong to elliptic, 5-11 × 1.5 -4.5 cm, with 6-8 pairs of lateral veins.   10 D. bilocularis
9 (5) Fruit (7.5-)8-12 mm high; styles divided to base (even in flower), without an evident column above broadly conic disk; largest leaf blades (9-)14-19 cm.   1 D. chevalieri
+ Fruit less than 8 mm high; styles united at least basally (sometimes obscurely so), forming an evident column above disk; largest leaf blade usually no more than 12 cm   (10)
10 (9) Glandular punctae prominent, usually visible to naked eye.   2 D. pellucidopunctatus
+ Glandular punctae minute, visible only with a hand lens   (11)
11 (10) Secondary and tertiary venation of leaves evident on both surfaces   (12)
+ Secondary and tertiary venation of leaves obscure, especially abaxially   (13)
12 (11) At least some leaf blades obovate-elliptic, broadest above middle, tertiary veins usually impressed adaxially in dry material.   3 D. burmanicus
+ Leaf blades ovate-elliptic or ovate-lanceolate to elliptic, broadest at or below middle, tertiary veins usually prominently raised adaxially in dry material.   4 D. dentiger
13 (11) Fruit oblong-ovoid; styles 1.5-1.8 mm in fruit.   5 D. productus
+ Fruit globose; styles ca. 1 mm in fruit.   6 D. confertus

  • List of lower taxa


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