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28. Eritrichium Schrader ex Gaudin, Fl. Helv. 2: 4, 57. 1828.

齿缘草属 chi yuan cao shu

Plants perennial or annual, appressed strigose or villous. Leaves alternate. Cymes terminal, not branched or branched and paniculate, rarely 1-flowered. Fruiting pedicel erect or deflexed. Calyx 5-parted to base or nearly so; lobes vertical to reflexed, enlarged in fruit. Corolla blue, light blue, or light purple, rarely yellow or white, campanulate-rotate to campanulate-tubular; throat with appendages, rarely appendages obscure or absent; lobes overlapping in bud, erect or divaricate at anthesis. Stamens included; anthers orbicular, ovate to oblong. Style and stigma solitary, usually not exceeding nutlets. Gynobase flattened-fastigiate or semiglobose to 1 mm, wider than tall at base. Nutlets 4, all or some developed, turbinate to ovoid or triangular-ovoid and dorsiventrally compressed; abaxially usually discoid, ribs or margin usually winged, dentate or with glochids.

About 50 species: mainly in Asia, a few in Europe and North America; 39 species in China.

1 Herbs annual or biennial.   (2)
+ Herbs perennial.   (7)
2 (1) Corolla campanulate-rotate   24 Eritrichium heterocarpum
+ Corolla campanulate-tubular.   (3)
3 (2) Stems numerous, cespitose or diffuse, branched at base or not.   (4)
+ Stems single or few, markedly erect, much branched above.   (5)
4 (3) Stems several, cespitose; inflorescences racemelike; corolla light blue, light purple, or yellow, appendages obscure   28 Eritrichium tangkulaense
+ Stems diffuse, prostrate; flowers solitary, axillary or extra-axillary; corolla white, appendages transverse linear   29 Eritrichium axillare
5 (3) Flowers few, widely spaced; marginal glochids of nutlets needlelike, remote at base   27 Eritrichium acicularum
+ Flowers numerous, crowded; marginal glochids of nutlets lanceolate, base usually confluent into a wing.   (6)
6 (5) Nutlets with dense tubercles and bristles, marginal glochids ciliate, attachment scar slightly above middle adaxially   25 Eritrichium echinocaryum
+ Nutlets glabrous or sparsely pubescent, attachment scar at middle or slightly below adaxially   26 Eritrichium thymifolium
7 (1) Stems slightly longer than basal leaves or not, base with crowded withered leaves and persistent petioles becoming cushionlike, or unbranched stems in leaf clusters forming rosettes.   (8)
+ Stems much longer than basal leaves, widely spaced, not cushion forming.   (18)
8 (7) Stems single or several, basal leaves forming a rosette   38 Eritrichium villosum
+ Stems numerous, becoming cushionlike.   (9)
9 (8) Corolla campanulate-tubular.   (10)
+ Corolla campanulate-rotate.   (12)
10 (9) Stems usually ca. as long as basal leaves; leaf blade glabrous except for a few short hairs near apex of abaxial surface   39 Eritrichium hemisphaericum
+ Stems longer than basal leaves; leaf blade appressed white pubescent or spreading pilose.   (11)
11 (10) Stems 5-10 cm tall; leaf blade oblanceolate, apex obtuse; inflorescences 3-10-flowered; calyx lobes not reflexed in fruit; nutlets 1-1.2 mm excluding marginal glochids, marginal glochids free or nearly so at base   22 Eritrichium lasiocarpum
+ Stems 2-5 cm tall; leaf blade oblong to broadly elliptic or obovate, apex obtuse to acute; inflorescences 1-4-flowered; calyx lobes reflexed in fruit; nutlets 1.8-2 mm excluding marginal glochids, marginal glochids confluent below middle forming a broad wing   23 Eritrichium qofengense
12 (9) Marginal rib of nutlet winged or with prickles, usually without glochids.   (13)
+ Marginal rib of nutlet with glochids at apex.   (15)
13 (12) Nutlet margin winged, wing erose at margin   21 Eritrichium humillimum
+ Nutlet margin prickly, rarely with some glochids.   (14)
14 (13) Leaf blade spatulate; nutlets ca. 1 mm   19 Eritrichium pectinatociliatum
+ Leaf blade narrowly elliptic; nutlets ca. 2 mm   20 Eritrichium angustifolium
15 (12) Leaves with stiff bristles arising from basal tubercles abaxially; corolla white   18 Eritrichium deqinense
+ Leaves grayish strigose or with short appressed hairs abaxially; corolla blue or whitish.   (16)
16 (15) Plants 3-5 cm; leaf blade spatulate, 2-4 mm wide; attachment scar of nutlet below middle adaxially   17 Eritrichium sinomicrocarpum
+ Plants 5-15 cm; leaf blade spatulate-lanceolate or obovate-lanceolate, 4-8 mm wide; attachment scar of nutlet above middle adaxially.   (17)
17 (16) Basal leaves linear, indistinctly petiolate, 3-3.5 mm wide; limb of corolla ca. 4 mm wide   15 Eritrichium kangdingense
+ Basal leaves ovate-lanceolate, distinctly petiolate, 4-8 mm wide; limb of corolla 5-6 mm wide   16 Eritrichium laxum
18 (7) Pedicel very short, 0.3-0.7 mm in fruit; leaf blade sparsely pubescent with tubercle-based bristles adaxially   7 Eritrichium fetisovii
+ Pedicel 1 mm or more, often much longer in fruit; leaf blade sparsely appressed white pubescent, strigose or appressed white sericeous.   (19)
19 (18) Pedicel erect to ascending, never curved.   (20)
+ Pedicel curved, sometimes pendulous.   (27)
20 (19) Leaf blade spatulate to ovate, sparsely appressed white pubescent or, if stem leaves narrowly lanceolate, strigose; nutlets dorsiventrally compressed or nearly so.   (21)
+ Leaf blade lanceolate to linear, densely appressed white sericeous; nutlets turbinate.   (23)
21 (20) Plants unequally strigose; leaf blade 3-8 mm wide; nutlets with fine tubercles and bristles abaxially   35 Eritrichium borealisinense
+ Plants sparsely appressed pubescent; leaf blade 3-5 mm wide; nutlets glabrous or only short hispid abaxially.   (22)
22 (21) Basal leaves spatulate, adaxially glabrous or sparsely spreading pilose; nutlets glabrous or with few short hairs, 2-3.5 mm excluding marginal glochids   30 Eritrichium spathulatum
+ Basal leaves ovate-lanceolate, adaxially with few long appressed hairs; nutlets minutely hispid, 1.7-2 mm excluding marginal glochids   31 Eritrichium fruticulosum
23 (20) Marginal glochids of nutlet mostly anchorlike at apex   32 Eritrichium canum
+ Marginal glochids of nutlet absent or not clearly anchorlike at apex.   (24)
24 (23) Margin of nutlet not winged, usually without glochids, or sometimes with few fine teeth   37 Eritrichium mandshuricum
+ Margin winged, with comblike, usually bluish teeth, apex sometimes with glochids.   (25)
25 (24) Pedicel 10-20 mm; marginal glochids of nutlets slender, irregular   34 Eritrichium incanum
+ Pedicel 3-5 mm; marginal glochids of nutlets triangular to triangular-lanceolate.   (26)
26 (25) Basal leaves ca. 2 cm; marginal glochids of nutlets curved toward center   33 Eritrichium gracile
+ Basal leaves 3-6 cm; marginal glochids of nutlets not curved toward center   36 Eritrichium pauciflorum
27 (19) Stem leaves oblong-linear to oblong-oblanceolate, 2-3 mm wide.   (28)
+ Stem leaves lanceolate to ovate, (4-)7-15 mm wide.   (30)
28 (27) Stems branched; fruiting pedicel ca. 1 mm; nutlets with marginal glochids ca. 1.2 mm   12 Eritrichium sessilifructum
+ Stems not branched; fruiting pedicel 5-10 mm; nutlets with marginal glochids ca. 0.4 mm.   (29)
29 (28) Nutlets adaxially glabrous, marginal glochids confluent   13 Eritrichium longifolium
+ Nutlets adaxially pubescent, marginal glochids free   14 Eritrichium subjacquemontii
30 (27) Corolla blue.   (31)
+ Corolla white.   (33)
31 (30) Marginal glochids of nutlets confluent into a broad wing   9 Eritrichium petiolare
+ Marginal glochids of nutlets free at base.   (32)
32 (31) Stem leaves oblanceolate to elliptic, abruptly constricted into a conspicuous petiole; pedicel 1.5-2 cm in fruit; attachment scar of nutlet above middle adaxially   10 Eritrichium longipes
+ Stem leaves lanceolate to linear, sessile; pedicel not exceeding 1 cm in fruit; attachment scar of nutlet below middle adaxially   11 Eritrichium medicarpum
33 (30) Leaf blade ovate to elliptic, apex obtuse   3 Eritrichium pseudolatifolium
+ Leaf blade lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, apex acuminate to acute.   (34)
34 (33) Marginal ribs of nutlets without glochids.   (35)
+ Marginal ribs of nutlets with glochids.   (36)
35 (34) Plants less than 10 cm; pedicel 0.5-1 mm; marginal ribs of nutlets with triangular teeth   4 Eritrichium confertiflorum
+ Plants 20-50 cm tall; pedicel 5-10 mm at anthesis, to 2-4 cm in fruit; marginal ribs of nutlets with a few fine emergences   5 Eritrichium pendulifructum
36 (34) Glochids of nutlet rib margin 0.5-1.2 mm.   (37)
+ Glochids of nutlet rib margin not exceeding 0.5 mm.   (38)
37 (36) Leaf blade acuminate to acute at apex, with few hairs abaxially; abaxial surface of nutlets ovate-triangular, attachment scar slightly below middle adaxially   1 Eritrichium pamiricum
+ Leaf blade acute to rounded at apex, pubescent; abaxial surface of nutlets ovate to broadly ovate, attachment scar at middle adaxially   2 Eritrichium latifolium
38 (36) Plants densely spreading hispid; fruiting pedicel to 1.5 cm; anchorlike marginal glochids of nutlets triangular   8 Eritrichium deltodentum
+ Plants pubescent; fruiting pedicel 3-5 mm; anchorlike marginal glochids of nutlets free at base   6 Eritrichium oligacanthum

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