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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 18 | Scrophulariaceae

51. Euphrasia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 604. 1753.

小米草属 xiao mi cao shu

Herbs, annual or perennial, hemiparasitic. Leaves opposite, lower ones usually small, increasing in size upward. Inflorescences terminal spikes or racemes; bracts larger than leaves, opposite, palmately veined, margin callous thickened dentate. Calyx tubular to campanulate, 4-lobed, more deeply parted medianly than laterally. Corolla tube tubular, apically inflated; limb 2-lipped; lower lip 3-lobed, lobe apices often emarginate; upper lip straight, galeate, lobes revolute. Stamens 4, didynamous, anthers connivent and enclosed by galea; locules parallel and free, pointed at base but posterior 2 anthers each with 1 locule spurred, all 4 with barbate hairs along slit. Stigma slightly dilated, entire or 2-lobed. Capsule compressed, 2-grooved, loculicidal, apex obtuse. Seeds numerous, small, ellipsoid, with cross striate wings.

About 200 species: cosmopolitan; 11 species in China, belonging to 2 disjunct sections.

The taxa in this genus often are hemiparasitic on grasses.

The Taiwan species of Euphrasia all belong to E. sect. Paradoxae Pugsley, which includes perennial taxa that also occur in tropical alpine mountains on SE Asian islands, New Guinea, New Zealand, and Juan Fernandez Island of Chile. All the other Chinese species of Euphrasia belong to E. sect. Semicalcaratae Bentham, which includes annual taxa that occur in the northern hemisphere temperate zones as well as alpine mountains in the northern subtropics.

1 Annuals; bracts conspicuously larger than leaves (sect. Semicalcaratae).   (2)
+ Perennials, stems often woody at base; bracts as large as leaves or slightly larger (sect. Paradoxae).   (6)
2 (1) Plants pubescent throughout with eglandular hairs   1 Euphrasia pectinata
+ Plants sparsely pubescent on upper stems, leaves, bracts, and calyx with capitate glandular hairs mixed with eglandular hairs.   (3)
3 (2) Stalks of glandular hairs short, 1- or 2-celled.   (4)
+ Stalks of glandular hairs long, (2 or)3- to several celled.   (5)
4 (3) Corolla upper side 0.5-1 cm, middle lobe of lower lip less than 3 mm wide   2 Euphrasia regelii
+ Corolla upper side 0.9-1.1 cm, middle lobe of lower lip 3-4 mm wide   3 Euphrasia jaeschkei
5 (3) Corolla upper side 4-8 mm; stems often slender, simple, rarely apically branched   4 Euphrasia hirtella
+ Corolla upper side 8-12 mm; stems often stout, usually branched from middle and apically   5 Euphrasia amurensis
6 (1) Calyx lobes ca. 2 X as long as tube   10 Euphrasia nankotaizanensis
+ Calyx lobes nearly as long as tube.   (7)
7 (6) Plants lacking glandular hairs   6 Euphrasia matsudae
+ Plants with glandular hairs.   (8)
8 (7) Calyx hispid   8 Euphrasia pumilio
+ Calyx glandular hairy.   (9)
9 (8) Leaves glabrous or sparsely pubescent   7 Euphrasia transmorrisonensis
+ Leaves densely pubescent on both surfaces.   (10)
10 (9) Leaf pubescence soft, mixed with glandular hairs   9 Euphrasia tarokoana
+ Leaf pubescence glandular viscose   11 Euphrasia durietziana

  • List of lower taxa


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    Photos by The Biodiversity of the Hengduan Mountains Project  
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