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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 12 | Sterculiaceae

3. Firmiana Marsili in Saggi, Sci. Lett. Accad. Padova. 1: 114, 116. 1786.

梧桐属 wu tong shu

Erythropsis Lindley ex Schott & Endlicher; Karaka Rafinesque.

Trees or shrubs, deciduous. Leaves simple, palmately 3-5-lobed or entire. Inflorescence paniculate or rarely racemose, axillary or terminal. Flowers unisexual or polygamous, sometimes appearing before leaves. Calyx orange-red or golden, funnel-shaped or cylindrical, (4 or)5-lobed or -partite, lobes short or divided nearly to base, reflexed. Petals absent. Male flowers: stamens 10-20, in capitate cluster at apex of androgynophore; anther 2-celled, anther cells curved; undeveloped pistil present. Female flowers: ovary 5-locular, ovoid or globose, basally enclosed by undeveloped anthers; styles basally connate; stigmas as many as carpels; ovules 2 to many per locule. Follicles stipitate, endocarp membranous, dehiscent long before maturity, foliaceous. Seeds 1 to many per follicle, on inner margin of foliaceous endocarp, globose, endosperm flat or plicate; cotyledons flat, very thin.

About 16 species: tropical, subtropical, and temperate Asia; seven species (five endemic) in China.

The relationship between Firmiana and Hildegardia Schott & Endlicher is unresolved. Kostermans (Reinwardtia 4: 281-310. 1957) used a follicle character, dehiscence vs. indehiscence, to separate the two genera. Molecular data, based on limited sampling, support a division based on floral characters, especially relating to calyx morphology, but there are unpublished molecular data that suggest that Firmiana and Hildegardia may not be distinct. Firmiana is the older of the two names.

1 Flowering when leafless; calyx lobes much shorter than tube   (2)
+ Flowering with leaves present; calyx divided almost to base, lobes much longer than tube, reflexed   (4)
2 (1) Base of leaf blade deeply cordate, apex obtuse; calyx funnel-shaped, base nearly cuneate.   5 F. colorata
+ Base of leaf blade truncate or shallowly cordate, apex acuminate; calyx subcampanulate or cylindric, base ± rounded   (3)
3 (2) Lobes of leaf blade 9-14 cm, apex long acuminate; calyx subcampanulate, ca. 16 mm, densely stellate pubescent with rust-colored hairs.   6 F. pulcherrima
+ Lobes of leaf blade 2-3 cm, apex acute to shortly acuminate; calyx cylindrical, ca. 32 mm, densely stellate tomentose with golden and reddish brown hairs.   7 F. kwangsiensis
4 (1) Leaf blade abaxially glabrous or slightly pilose; inflorescence terminal   (5)
+ Leaf blade abaxially densely hairy; inflorescence terminal or axillary   (6)
5 (4) Leaf blade cordate, 3-5-lobed, 15-30 cm wide; bark greenish; flowers yellowish green or yellow-white.   1 F. simplex
+ Leaf blade suborbicular, entire, 8-10 cm wide; bark blackish brown; flowers purple.   4 F. danxiaensis
6 (4) Leaf blade 3-lobed, 17-30 × 19-40 cm, base cordate, petiole 15-45 cm.   3 F. major
+ Leaf blade entire, 7-14 × 5-12 cm, base truncate or slightly cordate, petiole 4-16 cm.   2 F. hainanensis

Lower Taxa


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