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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 19 | Annonaceae

22. Fissistigma Griffith, Not. Pl. Asiat. 4: 706. 1854.

瓜馥木属 gua fu mu shu

Authors: Bingtao Li & Michael G. Gilbert

Climbers, with simple hairs, usually pubescent to tomentose and sometimes copiously so. Leaf blade with many stout parallel secondary veins. Inflorescences mostly leaf-opposed or terminal, less often axillary or infra-axillary, 1- to many flowered and forming cymes, glomerules, or branched panicles. Pedicel often with several bracteoles from base to middle. Flower buds ovoid or oblong-conic. Sepals 3, small, valvate, connate at very base. Petals 6, in 2 whorls, valvate, leathery, margin thickened; outer petals slightly larger than inner petals, erect or spreading, inside flat to convex; inner petals 3-edged, base concave. Stamens many; connectives slightly enlarged, apically oblique, obtuse, or slightly apiculate. Carpels many, free, often pubescent, slightly curved, grooved on inner side; ovules 1-16 per carpel, in 1 or 2 sutural series; styles sometimes narrowly clavate but usually not enlarging; stigmas very short and not clearly differentiated from style, apex 2-cleft or entire. Fruit apocarpous; monocarps few to many, stipitate, spherical, ovoid, or oblong, thick walled, usually pubescent to tomentose. Seeds 1-10 per monocarp, in 1 or 2 series, smooth, shiny.

About 75 species: Old World tropics and subtropics; 23 species (eight endemic) in China.

1 Inflorescence 1- or 2-flowered   (2)
+ Inflorescence usually more than 2-flowered, often in cymes, glomerules, or panicles   (4)
2 (1) Flowers leaf-opposed, ca. 1.2 cm in diam.; outer petals rounded, ca. 6 mm; inner petals ca. 4 mm.   1 F. cupreonitens
+ Flowers axillary or subaxillary, 3-4 cm in diam.; outer petals ovate-triangular or oblong, 14-24 mm; inner petals 10-14 mm   (3)
3 (2) Leaf blade oblong; pedicel ca. 2 cm; stigmas apically entire; ripe carpels 4-5 × ca. 4 cm.   2 F. uonicum
+ Leaf blade lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate; pedicel ca. 0.5 cm; stigmas apically 2-cleft; ripe carpels ca. 1.8 × 1.5 cm.   3 F. maclurei
4 (1) Leaf blade abaxially glabrous or obscurely sparsely pubescent, glabrescent   (5)
+ Leaf blade abaxially densely tomentose, densely pubescent, or hispid   (9)
5 (4) Leaf blade abaxially grayish white or grayish green and glaucous when dry   (6)
+ Leaf blade greenish or abaxially grayish green and not glaucous   (7)
6 (5) Leaf blade 1.2-6 cm wide; inflorescences thyrses; petals 5-6 mm; ovaries 1-ovuled; stigmas apically 2-cleft.   4 F. glaucescens
+ Leaf blade 6-8 cm wide; inflorescences cymes; petals ca. 15 mm; ovaries ca. 30-ovuled; stigmas apically entire.   5 F. pallens
7 (5) Leaf blade base truncate to slightly cordate, secondary veins 18-20 on each side of midvein; stigmas apically entire; ripe monocarps 3.5-4 cm wide; ovules ca. 10 per carpel.   6 F. chloroneurum
+ Leaf blade base rounded, obtuse, or broadly cuneate, secondary veins 13-15 on each side of midvein; stigmas apically 2-cleft; ripe monocarps 2-3 cm wide; ovules 4 or ca. 22 per carpel   (8)
8 (7) Young branchlets ferruginous pubescent; cymes usually leaf-opposed or alternate; ovules 4 per carpel; ripe monocarps glabrescent.   7 F. wallichii
+ Branchlets glabrous; panicles terminal or axillary; ovules ca. 22 per carpel; ripe monocarps densely fulvous tomentulose.   8 F. tonkinense
9 (4) Flowers in panicles or cymes   (10)
+ Flowers in glomerules   (16)
10 (9) Inflorescence rachides 1-28 cm   (11)
+ Inflorescence rachides 0.1-0.5 cm   (13)
11 (10) Leaf blade apex acute; flower buds ovoid; petals ovate; stamen connectives ovoid, apex obtuse.   9 F. latifolium
+ Leaf blade apex rounded or retuse; flower buds conic or lanceolate; petals oblong-lanceolate or ovate-elliptic; stamen connectives conic or broadly ovoid, apex acuminate or truncate   (12)
12 (11) Peduncle to 28 cm; pedicel 2-3 mm; petals ovate-elliptic to ovate-oblong; stamen connectives apically acuminate; stigma apex 2-cleft.   10 F. tungfangense
+ Peduncle ca. 1 cm; pedicel ca. 15 mm; petals oblong-lanceolate to narrowly lanceolate; stamen connectives apically truncate; stigma apex entire.   11 F. tientangense
13 (10) Leaf blade secondary veins adaxially flattened; stigma apex 2-cleft   (14)
+ Leaf blade secondary veins adaxially concave; stigma apex entire   (15)
14 (13) Sepals connate at base, broadly triangular, ca. 3 × 3.5 mm; stamen connectives broadly triangular.   12 F. polyanthoides
+ Sepals free at base, ovate-triangular, ca. 2 × 2 mm; stamen connectives obliquely triangular.   13 F. poilanei
15 (13) Leaf blade base cuneate to broadly cuneate; inner petals pubescent outside; ripe monocarps ca. 1.2 cm in diam.   14 F. acuminatissimum
+ Leaf blade base shallowly cordate; inner petals glabrous outside; ripe monocarps 2-2.5 cm in diam.   15 F. cavaleriei
16 (9) Leaf blade secondary veins 25-35 on each side of midvein; ripe monocarps ca. 4 cm in diam.   16 F. balansae
+ Leaf blade secondary veins 13-20 on each side of midvein; ripe monocarps 1.5-3 cm in diam   (17)
17 (16) Leaf blade secondary veins adaxially flattened   (18)
+ Leaf blade secondary veins adaxially concave   (20)
18 (17) Branches and abaxial leaf blade surfaces densely tomentose; outer petals with a prominent abaxial midrib; stamen connectives subrounded or truncate.   17 F. xylopetalum
+ Branches and abaxial leaf blade surfaces pubescent to glabrescent; outer petals without a prominent midrib; stamen connectives triangular or slightly obliquely triangular   (19)
19 (18) Petals 2-2.1 cm; ovules 10 per carpel; stigmas apically 2-cleft.   18 F. oldhamii
+ Petals 0.9-1.2 cm; ovules 4-6 per carpel; stigmas apically entire.   19 F. polyanthum
20 (17) Bracteoles many, longer than or as long as sepals; stigmas apically 2-cleft.   20 F. bracteolatum
+ Bracteoles few or absent, if present shorter than sepals; stigmas apically entire   (21)
21 (20) Leaf blade oblong-lanceolate to narrowly oblong, apex slightly acute; stamen connectives long lanceolate.   21 F. kwangsiense
+ Leaf blade broadly ovate, obovate, or obovate-oblong, apex rounded or retuse; stamen connectives broadly or obliquely triangular   (22)
22 (21) Leaf blade base rounded, truncate, or shallowly cordate; inflorescences leaf-opposed; sepals ovate-lanceolate, ca. 1 cm; outer petals ovate- oblong, ca. 1.5 cm; ovules 4 per carpel; ripe monocarps globose.   22 F. retusum
+ Leaf blade base broadly cuneate or rounded; inflorescences extra- axillary; sepals broadly triangular, ca. 5 mm; outer petals ovate, ca. 1 cm; ovules 10 per carpel; ripe monocarps oblong.   23 F. shangtzeense

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