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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 6 | Caryophyllaceae

29. Gypsophila Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 406. 1753.

石头花属 shi tou hua shu

Lu Dequan; Nicholas J. Turland

Heterochroa Bunge; Psammophila Fourreau; Psammophiliella Ikonnikov; Timaeosia Klotzsch.

Herbs annual or perennial. Stems usually caespitose, erect or diffuse, glabrous or glandular pubescent, sometimes glabrescent or base woody. Leaves opposite, linear, lanceolate, ovate, oblong, spatulate, or sometimes subulate or subfleshy. Flowers numerous, bisexual, small, borne in dichasial cymes, corymbs, or panicles, sometimes aggregated into capitula; bracts usually scarious, rarely leaflike. Calyx green or purple veined, white membranous between veins, campanulate or funnelform, rarely cylindric, glabrous or puberulous, veins broad, apex 5-toothed. Petals 5, white or pink, sometimes purple veined, oblong or obovate, longer than calyx, base usually cuneate, apex entire, truncate, or retuse. Stamens 10. Ovary globose or ovoid, 1-loculed; ovules numerous. Styles 2(or 3). Gynophore absent. Capsule globose, ovoid, or oblong, 4-valved. Seeds subreniform, compressed, tuberculate; hilum lateral; embryo annular; radicle prominent.

About 150 species: mainly in temperate Asia and Europe, fewer species in NE Africa (Egypt), Australia, and North America; 17 species (four endemic) in China.

Gypsophila elegans Marschall von Bieberstein, native to SW Asia and SE Europe, is cultivated in China as an ornamental.

1 Herbs annual   17 G. muralis
+ Herbs perennial.   (2)
2 (1) Stems densely caespitose, ascending; bracts leaflike; calyx not white membranous between veins.   (3)
+ Stems simple or laxly caespitose, erect; bracts scarious; calyx white membranous between veins.   (5)
3 (2) Plants white pubescent; leaves obovate-spatulate   14 G. cerastioides
+ Plants brown glandular pubescent or sericeous; leaves linear-subulate or lanceolate.   (4)
4 (3) Plants brown glandular pubescent; leaves linear-subulate; pedicels 0.3--1.2 cm   15 G. desertorum
+ Plants sericeous; leaves lanceolate; pedicels 1.4--2 cm   16 G. sericea
5 (2) Inflorescence paniculate, spreading, many branched, pedicels slender; calyx broadly campanulate.   (6)
+ Inflorescence usually corymbose, sometimes subcapitate, pedicels usually stout, rigid; calyx campanulate or narrowly so.   (7)
6 (5) Leaves lanceolate or linear-lanceolate, 0.25--0.7 cm wide, glabrous; calyx 1.5--2 mm, veins purple   12 G. paniculata
+ Leaves obovate- or ovate-oblong, 1--3 cm wide, glandular pubescent; calyx 2--4 mm, veins green   13 G. perfoliata
7 (5) Leaves linear.   (8)
+ Leaves not linear.   (11)
8 (7) Inflorescence few branched or subcapitate, few flowered.   (9)
+ Inflorescence many branched, numerous flowered.   (10)
9 (8) Inflorescence lax, pedicels 5--20 mm; calyx 2--3 mm   8 G. patrinii
+ Inflorescence subcapitate, pedicels ca. 1 mm; calyx 3.5--5 mm   9 G. capituliflora
10 (8) Inflorescence lax, divergent spinose   11 G. spinosa
+ Inflorescence congested, not spinose   10 G. licentiana
11 (7) Leaves linear-lanceolate.   (12)
+ Leaves linear-oblanceolate, oblong, or ovate.   (14)
12 (11) Plants more than 50 cm tall; inflorescence many branched; calyx veins green   6 G. davurica
+ Plants less than 50 cm tall; inflorescence few branched; calyx veins purple-brown.   (13)
13 (12) Inflorescence lax, few flowered, pedicels 5--15 mm; calyx 3--5 mm, lobes acuminate; stamens and styles included; seeds obtusely tuberculate   4 G. tschiliensis
+ Inflorescence subcapitate, numerous flowered, pedicels 2--3 mm; calyx 2--3 mm, lobes obtuse; stamens and styles exserted; seeds acutely tuberculate   5 G. huashanensis
14 (11) Leaves linear-oblanceolate.   (15)
+ Leaves oblong or ovate.   (16)
15 (14) Plants 50--80 cm tall; inflorescences scattered, pedicels 2--5 mm; bracts and calyx lobes ciliate at margin; seeds acutely tuberculate   1 G. altissima
+ Plants 20--50 cm tall; inflorescences concentrated into capitula, pedicels 0.5--2.5 mm; bracts and calyx lobes undulate at margin, not ciliate; seeds truncately tuberculate   2 G. cephalotes
16 (14) Leaves oblong; inflorescence dense, pedicels 2--5 mm; petal apex truncate or retuse; stamens and styles longer than petals   3 G. oldhamiana
+ Leaves ovate; inflorescence spreading, pedicels 5--10 mm; petal apex rounded; stamens and styles shorter than petals   7 G. pacifica

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