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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 5 | Loranthaceae

4. Helixanthera Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 1: 142. 1790.

离瓣寄生属 li ban ji sheng shu

Shrubs parasitic, glabrous or with stellate hairs and glabrescent. Leaves opposite or alternate, rarely subwhorled, pinnately veined. Inflorescences axillary, rarely terminal, racemes or spikes; 1 bract subtending each flower. Flowers bisexual, 4-6-merous, actinomorphic, sessile or pedicellate. Calyx limb 4-6-denticulate, persistent. Mature flower bud straight, basal 1/2 usually slightly inflated and angled, distal portion usually subclavate. Corolla red, pink, orange, or yellowish, petals free, straight, spreading. Stamens usually inserted at middle of the petals. Filaments short; anthers 2-4-loculed, sometimes multilocellate, ellipsoid. Pollen grain semiangular or semilobate in polar view. Ovary 1-loculed; placentation basal. Style subcylindric, 4-6-angled; stigma capitate or truncate. Berry ovoid or ellipsoid, exocarp leathery, smooth or pubescent.

Up to 50 species: tropical and subtropical Africa and Asia; seven species (two endemic) in China.

Barlow (Fl. Malesiana, Ser. 1, Spermatoph. 13: 328. 1997) estimated the global number of species to be 35.

1 Flowers 5-merous; young branchlets and leaves glabrous; inflorescences more than 40-flowered.   (2)
+ Flowers 4-merous; young branchlets and leaves pubescent or scaly, sometimes sparsely so; inflorescences 2-30-flowered.   (3)
2 (1) Leaves opposite; inflorescence a raceme, pedicels 1-2 mm.   1 H. parasitica
+ Leaves subwhorled or alternate; inflorescence a spike, pedicels absent.   2 H. pulchra
3 (1) Inflorescences 10-30-flowered.   (4)
+ Inflorescences 2-5-flowered.   (5)
4 (3) Inflorescences 20-30-flowered; pedicel 1-1.5 mm; petals 5-6 mm.   3 H. coccinea
+ Inflorescences 10-16-flowered; pedicel absent; petals 9-12 mm.   7 H. scoriarum
5 (3) Young leaves and flowers with yellow stellate hairs; peduncle ca. 1 mm; petals 3-3.5 mm.   6 H. guangxiensis
+ Young leaves and flowers with reddish brown scales; peduncle 6-15 mm; petals 7-9 mm.   (6)
6 (5) Leaf blade less than 5 cm; racemes usually 2-flowered.   4 H. sampsonii
+ Leaf blade 5-8 cm; racemes 2-4-flowered.   5 H. terrestris

Lower Taxa


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