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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 25 | Orchidaceae

29. Hemipilia Lindley, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 296. 1835.

舌喙兰属 she hui lan shu

Authors: Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale & Phillip J. Cribb

Hemipilia flabellata

Credit: Harvard University Herbaria

Herbs, terrestrial, small to medium-sized. Tuber subspherical to ellipsoid, fleshy. Stem erect, abbreviate, with 1 short sheathing cataphyll at base and 1 solitary leaf (rarely 2 leaves). Leaf basal, usually appressed to substrate, green, often with purple markings, cordate to ovate-cordate, directly sheathing stem at base, fleshy, glabrous. Inflorescence elongate, with 2-4 scattered sterile bracts and a few to several flowers in a lax to subdense terminal raceme, glabrous; floral bracts lanceolate, usually shorter than ovary. Flowers resupinate, purple, purplish red, pink, or nearly white, medium-sized; pedicel and ovary often slightly arcuate, narrowly cylindric-fusiform, glabrous. Sepals free; dorsal sepal often erect; lateral sepals spreading, oblique. Petals usually connivent with dorsal sepal and forming a hood over column, slightly smaller than sepals; lip spreading, spurred at base, 3-lobed or entire, adaxially finely papillate, with 2 prominent ridges below mouth of spur; spur cylindric to conic, rather long, often papillate inside. Column stout; anther hoodlike, with 2 divergent locules and a broad connective; rostellum conspicuous, to 2 mm, protruding between anther cells, lateral lobes fleshy, apically infolded; pollinia 2, granular-farinaceous, sectile, attached to viscidia via long caudicles; viscidia cymbiform, enclosed by folded apices of rostellum lateral lobes; stigma lobes confluent, slightly concave, posterior to rostellum; auricles 2, one on either side of anther base. Capsule narrowly ellipsoid.

About ten species: from Nepal, through Bhutan and S China, to Myanmar and Thailand; seven species (five endemic) in China; one additional species (endemic) is incompletely known.

Incompletely known species

Hemipilia forrestii Rolfe, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinburgh 8: 27. 1913.

长距舌喙兰 chang ju she hui lan

Hemipilia forrestii var. macrantha Handel-Mazzetti.

Plants ca. 20 cm tall. Tubers ellipsoid, 3-4(-5) cm. Stem 1-leaved. Leaf ovate-oblong, ca. 4.5 × 2.5 cm, base subcordate, apex acute. Inflorescence ca. 17 cm; rachis ca. 6 cm, several flowered; floral bracts lanceolate or ovate-lanceolate, 10-12 mm, apex acuminate. Flowers rose-purple; pedicel and ovary ca. 20 mm. Dorsal sepal erect, cymbiform, ovate-oblong, ca. 6 mm, apex obtuse; lateral sepals ovate, oblique, concave, ca. 12 mm, apex subobtuse, recurved. Petals ovate-oblong, ca. 5 mm, apex obtuse; lip sessile, quadrate-obovate, ca. 13 × 10 mm, margin irregularly crenate, apex truncate; spur attenuate, ca. 30 mm, slightly incurved, apex subacute. Column ca. 5 mm; rostellum ovate-oblong, ca. 3 mm. Fl. Sep.

● Crevices on rocky slopes; 1200-3000 m. SW Sichuan, SE Xizang, NW Yunnan.

This species is clearly a close ally of Hemipilia flabellata, though with larger flower parts and a longer spur. No specimens have been seen by us to confirm its identity.

1 Lip 3-lobed, though lateral lobes sometimes reduced   (2)
+ Lip simple   (3)
2 (1) Mid-lobe of lip rectangular to ovate-orbicular, margins usually diverging, apex not divided.   1 H. cordifolia
+ Mid-lobe of lip subsquare to rectangular, margins often tapering slightly toward apex, apex divided into 2 rounded lobules.   2 H. henryi
3 (1) Spur ca. 10 mm or more   (4)
+ Spur to 8 mm   (5)
4 (3) Lip 8-10 mm, basally contracted into short claw, blade flabellate to orbicular; spur conic-cylindric, attenuate, 13-18 mm.   3 H. flabellata
+ Lip ca. 13 mm, not clawed, blade suboblong; spur cylindric, uniformly thick (not attenuate), 10-12 mm.   4 H. crassicalcarata
5 (3) Lip ovate to orbicular, broadest below middle.   5 H. limprichtii
+ Lip obovate to oblong, broadest above middle   (6)
6 (5) Lip 12-13 mm wide.   6 H. kwangsiensis
+ Lip 6-8 mm wide.   7 H. calophylla

Lower Taxa


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