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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 2-3 | Lindsaeaceae

4. Lindsaea Dryander ex Smith, Mém. Acad. Roy. Sci. (Turin). 5: 413. 1793.

鳞始蕨属 lin shi jue shu

Authors: Shiyong Dong, Sujuan Lin & Julie Barcelona

Lindsaya Kaulfuss; Schizolegnia Alston; Schizoloma Gaudichaud; Synaphlebium J. Smith.

Plants terrestrial, climbing or epiphytic. Rhizomes creeping with a Lindsaea-type protostele (differs from a true protostele by presence of a central core of phloem within xylem mass usually concentrated on dorsal side of rhizome), covered with subulate scales or acicular hairs or both. Fronds approximate or distant; stipe short, stramineous or castaneous, shallowly sulcate adaxially, glabrous; lamina 1- or 2-pinnate or pinnatifid, gradually narrowed toward apex, rarely with a terminal pinna, herbaceous to papery; rachis widely sulcate, abaxially keeled; ultimate pinnules or segments usually dimidiate or flabellate; veins free or anastomosing in a few species. Sori marginal or submarginal, linear, terminal on 2 to many uniting veins, or rarely orbicular and terminal on a single vein; annulus consisting of 9-17 thickened cells; indusia linear or oblong, usually attached only at base. Spores usually tetrahedral-globose and trilete.

About 200 species: tropical and subtropical areas, extending north to Japan and south to S Brazil, Australia, and New Zealand; 13 species (one endemic) in China.

Lindsaea kawabatae Kurata (J. Geobot. 13: 100. 1965), recorded from Taiwan, could not be treated here because no material was seen by the present authors. For more details, see Knapp (Ferns Fern Allies Taiwan, 93-95. 2011), who distinguished it from other Taiwanese species by the very small narrowly cuneate pinnules.

1 Plants epiphytic; rhizomes long creeping, scandent; scales on rachis lanceolate, with 6-12 rows of cells at base.   1 L. merrillii
+ Plants terrestrial; rhizomes shortly creeping, rarely long creeping, not scandent; scales on rachis very narrow, with 1-6(-8) rows of cells at base   (2)
2 (1) Lamina 1- or 2-pinnate, if 2-pinnate then only 1-3(-5) pairs of lower pinnae pinnate, middle and upper pinnae not lobed   (3)
+ Lamina 1-3(or 4)-pinnate, if decompound then all lateral pinnae 1- or 2-pinnate   (5)
3 (2) Veins free; lamina deltoid-lanceolate.   2 L. javanensis
+ Veins anastomosing; lamina oblong   (4)
4 (3) Lamina 1-pinnate, terminal pinna similar to lateral ones.   3 L. ensifolia
+ Lamina 1- or 2-pinnate, without a terminal pinna, upper pinnae gradually becoming smaller into a coadunate apex.   4 L. heterophylla
5 (2) Veins anastomosing   (6)
+ Veins free   (8)
6 (5) Rhizome scales very narrow, 1 or 2 cells wide at base; pinnules lobed on upper margin, reaching to 1/3-1/2 pinnule width, incisions 1-1.5 mm deep; lobes rounded at apex.   5 L. hainaniana
+ Rhizome scales lanceolate or triangular, 4-8 cells wide at base; pinnules shallowly lobed on upper margin, incisions usually less than 1 mm deep; lobes or pinnules straight or nearly so on upper margin   (7)
7 (6) Pinnules obtuse-acuminate at apex, upper margin of fertile lobes entire; sori continuous or nearly so.   6 L. cultrata
+ Pinnules rounded or subtruncate at apex, upper margin of fertile lobes erose; sori distinctly interrupted by incisions.   7 L. obtusa
8 (5) Lamina 1-pinnate, linear, less than 3 cm wide   (9)
+ Lamina 2- or 3-pinnate, ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or deltoid-lanceolate, over 10 cm wide   (10)
9 (8) Stipes usually stramineous; pinnae rhomboid or semi-ovate; sori interrupted.   8 L. lucida
+ Stipes usually castaneous; pinnae flabellate or semi-orbicular; sori continuous.   9 L. orbiculata
10 (8) Sori usually terminal on a single vein, subrounded (orbicular?), two sori rarely closed or connected   (11)
+ Sori terminal on 2 or more veins   (12)
11 (10) Lamina 1- or 2-pinnate with a large terminal pinna; ultimate pinnules rhomboid or cuneate.   10 L. chingii
+ Lamina 3- or 4-pinnate, pinnatifid and gradually narrowed toward apex; ultimate pinnules linear.   11 L. eberhardtii
12 (10) Terminal pinnae similar to lateral pinnae; lateral pinnae clearly stalked, stalks 5-15 mm; pinnules all or partly catadromous.   12 L. austrosinica
+ Terminal pinnae absent or present, if present then much larger than lateral ones; lateral pinnae sessile or shortly stalked (less than 2 mm); pinnules usually anadromous   (13)
13 (12) Distal part of lamina abruptly narrowed and caudate, or lamina with a large terminal pinna; terminal pinnules usually entire; sori continuous or nearly so.   9 L. orbiculata
+ Distal part of lamina gradually narrowed and acuminate, terminal pinnae absent; terminal pinnules distinctly lobed; sori interrupted.   13 L. chienii

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