3. LIQUIDAMBAR Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 999. 1753.
枫香树属 feng xiang shu shu
Trees, deciduous. Leaves alternate, long-petiolate; stipules linear, ± adnate to base of petioles, caducous, leaving small scars; leaf blade palmately 3–7(or more)-lobed, rarely entire, margin serrate, venation actinodromous. Plants monoecious. Inflorescence usually a globose head (a condensed panicle). Male inflorescence a head or spike, several to many together in racemes. Female inflorescence capitate, with 1 bract. Flowers unisexual. Sepals and petals absent. Male flowers: stamens many; filaments as long as anthers; anthers ovoid, thecae 2-sporangiate, each dehiscing by a longitudinal slit or rudimentary valve, apex rounded or emarginate. Female flowers: staminodes (also interpreted as carpellodes) forming rudimentary scales or teeth around gynoecium, persistent in fruit; ovary semi-inferior; ovules many, inserted on septum, only lowest ones fertile; stigmas decurrent, persistent in fruit. Infructescences globose. Capsules woody, dehiscing loculicidally by 2 valves; pericarp thin; styles persistent. Seeds many, most of them sterile, minute, irregularly angular; fertile seeds large, ellipsoid, slightly compressed, membranous-winged; seed coat reticulately sculptured; endosperm thin, embryo straight. 2n = 30, 32
Five species: E and SW Asia, Central and North America; two species (one endemic) in China.
The resin, stems, leaves, and fruit are used medicinally.
Liquidambar edentata Merrill (J. Arnold Arbor. 8: 6. 1927) and L. rosthornii Diels (Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 29: 380. 1900) were described from China (the former from Fujian), but the present authors have no specimens.