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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 15 | Primulaceae

1. Lysimachia Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 1: 146. 1753.

珍珠菜属 zhen zhu cai shu

Herbs erect or procumbent, rarely suffruticose, glabrous or pubescent, often with internal glands appearing as pustulate dots or stripes. Leaves alternate, opposite, or whorled, usually entire. Flowers solitary in axils of upper leaves or in terminal and axillary panicles or racemes, often shortened into capitate clusters, with bracts. Calyx usually 5(or rarely 6--9)-parted. Corolla white or yellow, rarely pink, homomorphic, rarely heteromorphic, subrotate or campanulate, deeply 5(or rarely 6--9)-parted; lobes contorted in bud. Filaments free or connate into a ring or tube at base and ± adnate to corolla tube; anthers basifixed, dorsifixed or versatile opening by apical pores or by lateral slits. Capsule subglobose, usually dehiscing by valves, rarely indehiscent.

Approximately 180 species in temperate and subtropical parts of the northern hemisphere, but with a few species in Africa, Australia, and South America; 138 species occur in China.

Key 3

1 Calyx parted 1/2-2/3 its length; corolla lobes nearly free   98 Lysimachia pentapetala
+ Calyx parted nearly to base; corolla lobes distinctly connate at base.   (2)
2 (1) Style shorter than corolla, usually only reaching middle of corolla lobes, ca. as long as to shorter than capsules.   (3)
+ Style ca. as long as or longer than corolla, longer than capsules (except in L. violascens, corolla ca. 1/3 longer than style).   (17)
3 (2) Leaves opposite, rarely alternate in upper part of stem; anthers with thick red glands or callus at apex.   (4)
+ Leaves alternate, rarely opposite; anthers without red glands at apex.   (6)
4 (3) Leaves petiolate, abaxially very densely, minutely rust-colored glandular punctate   111 Lysimachia circaeoides
+ Leaves sessile, base auriculate and clasping, abaxially sparsely thick glandular punctate.   (5)
5 (4) Corolla lobes oblong, obtuse or subacute at apex   112 Lysimachia auriculata
+ Corolla lobes suborbicular or subflabellate, erose-denticulate at apex   113 Lysimachia glanduliflora
6 (3) Calyx lobes lanceolate, only margin membranous and apex without red glands; persistent style usually shorter than capsules; racemes sparsely flowered or flowers solitary in axils of upper leaves.   (7)
+ Calyx lobes elliptic or oblong, apex membranous or red glandular; persistent style ca. as long as capsules; racemes densely flowered.   (10)
7 (6) Flowers solitary, in axils of upper leaves; corolla ca. as long as calyx; filaments longer than anthers   107 Lysimachia chenopodioides
+ Flowers in racemes, subtended by subulate bracts; corolla distinctly longer than calyx; filament shorter than anthers.   (8)
8 (7) Corolla 3.5-5 mm, lobes not glandular striate; calyx lobes glandular ciliate   108 Lysimachia excisa
+ Corolla 6-10 mm, lobes brown or black glandular striate; calyx lobes glabrous along margin.   (9)
9 (8) Corolla white, lobes ligulate, reflexed, with many dark glandular tripes; style ca. 1 mm; leaves black glandular punctate near margin   109 Lysimachia reflexiloba
+ Corolla pink, lobes obovate, not reflexed, with 2 red glandular stripes at middle; style ca. 2 mm; leaves black glandular striate near margin   110 Lysimachia roseola
10 (6) Bracts leaflike; corolla lobes erect; ovary conical; capsules pyriform, ca. 5 mm in diam.; plants glabrous   99 Lysimachia mauritiana
+ Bracts subulate; corolla lobes spreading; ovary ovoid; capsules globose, ca. 3 mm in diam.; plants glandular puberulent (at least on inflorescences).   (11)
11 (10) Corolla 5-9 mm, lobes oblong or sublinear; filaments 2-4 mm.   (12)
+ Corolla 3-5 mm, lobes elliptic to ovate-elliptic; filaments 1-1.5 mm.   (14)
12 (11) Plants without creeping rhizomes; pedicel shorter than calyx and capsules   100 Lysimachia jiangxiensis
+ Plants with creeping rhizomes; pedicel longer than calyx and capsules.   (13)
13 (12) Corolla lobes 3.5-4.5 mm; leaf blade broadly lanceolate to elliptic, black glandular punctate   101 Lysimachia clethroides
+ Corolla lobes 5-8 mm; leaf blade oblanceolate to linear, epunctate   102 Lysimachia barystachys
14 (11) Pedicel ca. 10 mm; leaves black glandular striate near margin   103 Lysimachia stigmatosa
+ Pedicel 1-6 mm; leaves glandular punctate.   (15)
15 (14) Calyx lobes acute and red glandular at apex; pedicel 3-6 mm, longer than bracts   104 Lysimachia tienmushanensis
+ Calyx lobes obtuse and membranous at apex; pedicel 1-3 mm, ca. as long as to slightly shorter than bracts.   (16)
16 (15) Plants with creeping rhizomes; stems rarely branched, glabrescent; leaf blade oblong-lanceolate   105 Lysimachia fortunei
+ Plants without creeping rhizomes; stems branched, puberulent; leaf blade narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate   106 Lysimachia chikungensis
17 (2) Anthers linear, 1-1.5 mm, with thick red glands or callus at apex.   (18)
+ Anthers elliptic or ovate, without glands or callus at apex.   (19)
18 (17) Leaves sessile, clasping at base, densely black glandular punctate   114 Lysimachia heterogenea
+ Leaves usually petiolate, sparsely purple or brown glandular punctate or striate   115 Lysimachia stenosepala
19 (17) Flowers 4-8, near stem apex, in axils of leaves or a capitate cluster.   (20)
+ Flowers in terminal, many-flowered, elongated racemes.   (21)
20 (19) Flowers in axils of apical leaves; corolla shorter than pedicel   135 Lysimachia prolifera
+ Flowers in a terminal, subcapitate cluster; corolla longer than pedicel   136 Lysimachia pumila
21 (19) Corolla parted to ± middle.   (22)
+ Corolla parted to 2/3 or below.   (24)
22 (21) Corolla campanulate, ca. 5 mm; leaf blade ovate to ovate-lanceolate   132 Lysimachia racemiflora
+ Corolla narrowly campanulate, 8-10 mm; leaf blade obovate to sublinear.   (23)
23 (22) Stems erect, simple or branched; branches ascending to erect; racemes initially broadly coniform, densely flowered   133 Lysimachia candida
+ Stems ± prostrate, fasciculate, usually much branched; branches elongated flagelliform; racemes slender, sparsely flowered   134 Lysimachia parvifolia
24 (21) Corolla 2.5-5(-6) mm, ca. as long as calyx.   (25)
+ Corolla 6-12 mm, distinctly longer than calyx.   (27)
25 (24) Corolla ca. 6 mm; stamens included or with only apex of anthers exserted   116 Lysimachia silvestrii
+ Corolla 2.5-4 mm; stamens distinctly exserted.   (26)
26 (25) Corolla slightly longer than or ca. as long as calyx, lobes oblong-spatulate   117 Lysimachia decurrens
+ Corolla shorter than calyx, lobes narrowly oblong   118 Lysimachia breviflora
27 (24) Corolla lobes suborbicular, clawed at base.   (28)
+ Corolla lobes elliptic, obovate, or narrowly oblong, not clawed at base.   (30)
28 (27) Leaves abaxially minutely rust-colored glandular punctate   119 Lysimachia platypetala
+ Leaves abaxially glaucous.   (29)
29 (28) Corolla pink, epunctate   120 Lysimachia glaucina
+ Corolla white, reddish brown glandular striate near apex   121 Lysimachia orbicularis
30 (27) Corolla lobes elliptic or broadly obovate, rarely elliptic-oblong, wider than 2 mm.   (31)
+ Corolla lobes narrowly oblong, less than 2 mm wide.   (35)
31 (30) Leaves alternate or occasionally opposite on lower part of stem, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate.   (32)
+ Leaves opposite (at least on branches) or in whorls, linear-lanceolate.   (33)
32 (31) Corolla 8-12 mm, ca. 2 × as long as calyx, sinus between lobes acute; stamens ca. 2/3 as long as corolla lobes   122 Lysimachia violascens
+ Corolla 6-7(-8) mm, slightly longer than calyx, sinus between lobes rounded; stamens ca. as long as to longer than corolla   123 Lysimachia lichiangensis
33 (31) Corolla ca. 5 mm; leaves subleathery   126 Lysimachia robusta
+ Corolla 8-10 mm; leaves herbaceous.   (34)
34 (33) Leaves sparsely glandular punctate and striate, usually in whorls of 3 or 4 on main stem   124 Lysimachia taliensis
+ Leaves glandular striate on margin only, subopposite on main stem   125 Lysimachia tsaii
35 (30) Leaves sessile.   (36)
+ Leaves petiolate.   (37)
36 (35) Leaf blade narrowly lanceolate to linear, 0.4-1 cm wide; corolla epunctate   127 Lysimachia delavayi
+ Leaf blade oblanceolate, 1.8-2.6 cm wide; corolla red glandular striate   128 Lysimachia medogensis
37 (35) Corolla to 10 mm; leaves glaucescent abaxially   131 Lysimachia tsarongensis
+ Corolla 5-7 mm; leaves pale green abaxially.   (38)
38 (37) Stamens ca. as long as corolla   129 Lysimachia chungdienensis
+ Stamens 1-2 mm longer than corolla   130 Lysimachia lobelioides

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