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19. Odontochilus Blume, Fl. Javae Nov. Ser. 1: 66. 1858.

齿唇兰属 chi chun lan shu

Authors: Xinqi Chen, Stephan W. Gale, Phillip J. Cribb & Paul Ormerod

Cystopus Blume (1858), not Léveillé (1847); Evrardia Gagnepain (1932), not Adanson (1763); Evrardiana Averyanov, nom. illeg. superfl.; Evrardianthe Rauschert; Pristiglottis Cretzoiu & J. J. Smith.

Herbs, terrestrial, autotrophic or rarely holomycotrophic. Rhizome creeping, cylindric, several noded, fleshy; roots narrowly filiform to fibrous, arising singly from rhizome nodes or rarely absent. Stem erect or ascending, with 1 to a few loose tubular sheaths at base, and a few scattered or subrosulate leaves, or leafless (when holomycotrophic), glabrous. Leaves green or purple, occasionally with 1-3 white stripes, suborbicular, ovate-lanceolate, or elliptic, oblique, with a short to long petiole-like base dilating into tubular amplexicaul sheath. Inflorescence erect, terminal, racemose, glabrous or pubescent; peduncle with a few scattered sheathing bracts; rachis laxly to subdensely few to many flowered; floral bracts membranous, glabrous or pubescent. Flowers resupinate or erect and not resupinate; ovary twisted or not, slender, glabrous or pubescent. Sepals glabrous or pubescent; dorsal sepal free or connate for half its length with lateral sepals; lateral sepals similar to dorsal sepal, completely enclosing base of lip. Petals usually appressed to dorsal sepal, linear-ligulate to ovate, membranous; lip 3-partite, spurless; hypochile subglobose, aseptate and saccate or with a central septum and bisaccate, containing a pair of fleshy calli; mesochile usually elongate, tubular, external margin with an entire or fimbriate-pectinate flange, rarely with 2 flanges on either side, or rarely not flanged at all. Column dilated, twisted or not, ventrally with 2 intramarginal, lamellate appendages (wings); anther erect, ovoid, 2-locular; pollinia 2, obovoid-obpyriform or clavate, usually attenuate into slender stalks that attach to a solitary small viscidium; rostellum deltoid, remnant shortly to deeply bifid; stigma lobes separate to confluent, placed directly beneath rostellum. Capsule ellipsoid.

About 40 species: N India and the Himalayas, through SE Asia, as far north as Japan, east to the SW Pacific islands; 11 species (two endemic) in China.

The circumscription of Odontochilus has been contentious, with the structural similarity of its flowers to those of Anoectochilus often resulting in its inclusion in the latter. It is defined here (following Pridgeon et al., Gen. Orchid. 3: 126-129. 2003) by the combination of a saccate but spurless lip that is enclosed at its base by the lateral sepals and the placement of the confluent or occasionally separate stigma lobes directly beneath the rostellum.

1 Plants holomycotrophic, achlorophyllous and lacking leaves, purplish red or brown   (2)
+ Plants autotrophic, leafy, green, dark green, greenish brown, or dark greenish purple   (4)
2 (1) Flowers resupinate; petals and lip white.   3 O. saprophyticus
+ Flowers not resupinate; petals and lip purplish red, yellow, or fawn-colored   (3)
3 (2) Dorsal sepal ca. 7 × 4 mm; lip T-shaped, ca. 16 mm, with 2 hornlike, divergent, V-shaped lacunae at apex; lobes of epichile oblong, ca. 5 × 2.5 mm.   1 O. poilanei
+ Dorsal sepal 3.8-4.1 × 1.8-2 mm; lip Y-shaped, 11.2-12.2 mm, without lacunae at apex; lobes of epichile subquadrate, 3.2-4 × 2.8-3.2 mm.   2 O. guangdongensis
4 (1) Sepals uniformly green or yellowish green, sometimes tinged red toward apex; hypochile of lip bisaccate, divided by a central longitudinal septum   (5)
+ Sepals white, pale green, or purplish with either dark brownish green patches or purplish red longitudinal stripes; hypochile of lip globose-saccate (though hypochile of O. clarkei occasionally shallowly 2-lobed), aseptate   (8)
5 (4) Lip mesochile lacking flanges.   4 O. crispus
+ Lip mesochile with a fimbriate-pectinate flange along each external margin   (6)
6 (5) Floral bracts ca. 5 mm, much shorter than ovary; ovary and pedicel pubescent.   5 O. elwesii
+ Floral bracts 8-15 mm, subequal in length to or exceeding ovary; ovary and pedicel glabrous   (7)
7 (6) Adaxial surface of leaves uniformly dark green; flowers white or yellowish white; lateral sepals 9-10 mm.   6 O. brevistylis
+ Adaxial surface of leaves dark green with whitish stripes along midvein and 2 lateral veins; flowers yellow; lateral sepals 6-7.5 mm.   7 O. lanceolatus
8 (4) Plants 7.5-8.5 cm tall; leaf petiole-like base and tubular sheath 0.3-0.5 cm; lip 12-13 mm.   8 O. nanlingensis
+ Plants 10-30 cm tall; leaf petiole-like base and tubular sheath 1.5-3.5 cm; lip 17-26 mm   (9)
9 (8) Lip epichile lobes ca. 5.5 mm.   9 O. tortus
+ Lip epichile lobes ca. 10 mm   (10)
10 (9) Flowers erect, not resupinate; ovary and pedicel not twisted; lip uniformly white; mesochile 9.5-16 mm, not dilated at base.   10 O. inabae
+ Flowers resupinate; ovary and pedicel twisted; mesochile ca. 5 mm, dilated at base, reddish; epichile lobes yellow.   11 O. clarkei

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