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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 25 | Orchidaceae

4. Paphiopedilum Pfitzer, Morph. Stud. Orchideenbl. 11. 1886.

兜兰属 dou lan shu

Authors: Zhongjian Liu, Xinqi Chen & Phillip J. Cribb

Cordula Rafinesque; Stimegas Rafinesque.

Plants terrestrial, lithophytic, or epiphytic. Rhizome inconspicuous or short, rarely stoloniferous, with glabrous or hairy roots. Stem short, enclosed in distichous leaf bases, rarely elongated. Leaves usually basal, 3-7, distichous, conduplicate toward base; blade abaxially pale green or sometimes spotted or flushed with purple at base or throughout, adaxially uniformly green or tessellated with dark and light green, narrowly elliptic to suboblong. Scape suberect to arching, terminating in a solitary flower or a several- to many-flowered inflorescence; peduncle usually hairy; floral bracts conduplicate; ovary 1-locular. Flowers large, showy, variable in color. Dorsal sepal often large, margin sometimes recurved; lateral sepals usually fused to form a synsepal. Petals various in shape, suborbicular to spatulate; lip deeply pouched and inflated, globose, ellipsoid, or ovoid, basal portion narrowed and with incurved lateral lobes, hairy at inner bottom. Column short, with 2 lateral fertile stamens, a terminal staminode above, and a stigma below; anthers 2-locular, with very short filament; pollen powdery or glutinous; staminode varying in shape; stigma papillate and inconspicuously 3-lobed. Fruit a capsule.

About 80-85 species: tropical Asia to the Pacific islands, with some species extending to subtropical areas; 27 species (two endemic) in China.

1 Lip subglobose, ellipsoid, or ovoid, apical margin involute, usually with a rather short basal claw   (2)
+ Lip helmet-shaped or slipper-shaped, lacking an involute apical margin and with a long basal claw   (10)
2 (1) Lip usually ellipsoid or ovoid, longer than broad; dorsal sepal broader than petals   (3)
+ Lip usually subglobose, nearly as long as broad; dorsal sepal narrower than or ca. as broad as petals   (5)
3 (2) Dorsal sepal and petals with a central longitudinal stripe composed of brown-red spots; staminode with caudate apex 1.5-2 mm.   9 P. wenshanense
+ Dorsal sepal and petals without a central stripe as above; staminode lacking a caudate apex as above   (4)
4 (3) Flower yellowish to yellow; dorsal sepal and petals with maroon speckles 0.5-1 mm in diam.   7 P. concolor
+ Flower white or ivory, sometimes yellowish; dorsal sepal and petals with maroon spots 1.5-2 mm in diam.   8 P. bellatulum
5 (2) Leaves uniformly green, very rarely obscurely tessellated with dark and light green adaxially   (6)
+ Leaves distinctly tessellated with dark and light green adaxially   (7)
6 (5) Flower white with a yellowish lip; staminode trullate, with a deep longitudinal groove centrally, 9-10 mm wide, yellow, strongly veined with red.   5 P. emersonii
+ Flowers dull cream-colored, sometimes flushed at base with purple; staminode broadly obovate-triangular, nearly flat, 18-22 mm wide, cream-colored, heavily veined with red, and with a yellow tip.   6 P. hangianum
7 (5) Dorsal sepal apple-green or rarely yellowish green or greenish; scape usually 30-50(-65) cm.   1 P. malipoense
+ Dorsal sepal not apple-green or yellowish green; scape usually 15-25(-30) cm   (8)
8 (7) Plants not stoloniferous; dorsal sepal and petals white, scarcely or obscurely spotted and veined with pale pink, particularly on dorsal surface.   4 P. delenatii
+ Plants stoloniferous; dorsal sepal and petals yellow or whitish and conspicuously veined with red-purple   (9)
9 (8) Sepals, petals, and lip yellow, lip not much larger than synsepal.   2 P. armeniacum
+ Sepals and petals white, strongly marked with purple on veins, lip much larger than synsepal, pink or rarely white.   3 P. micranthum
10 (1) Leaves tessellated with dark and light green adaxially; lip tuberculate on incurved lateral lobes   (11)
+ Leaves uniformly green adaxially; lip not tuberculate on incurved lateral lobes   (14)
11 (10) Petals heavily spotted with blackish maroon over whole adaxial surface.   26 P. wardii
+ Petals without or sometimes with blackish maroon speckles in basal half or a few blackish warts scattered   (12)
12 (11) Leaves densely spotted with purple abaxially; lip and staminode distinctly green veined.   27 P. venustum
+ Leaves pale green abaxially or sometimes marked with purple at abaxial base; lip and staminode not green veined   (13)
13 (12) Leaves usually obscurely tessellated with dark and light green adaxially, and marked with purple at abaxial base; petals spatulate, with a few warts along upper margin of basal half.   24 P. appletonianum
+ Leaves usually distinctly tessellated with green and whitish green adaxially, not marked with purple abaxially; petals suboblong or oblong-elliptic, usually with blackish maroon speckles in basal half.   25 P. purpuratum
14 (10) Inflorescence 2-6-flowered; petals more than 2 × as long as lip   (15)
+ Inflorescence 1- or very rarely 2-flowered; petals less than 2 × as long as lip   (16)
15 (14) Ovary glabrous; perianth persistent until fruiting.   10 P. dianthum
+ Ovary densely pubescent; perianth deciduous after pollination.   11 P. parishii
16 (14) Leaves rigid, leathery-succulent, usually 7-10(-12.5) cm; synsepal suborbicular; flowers yellow or ochre-yellow, dorsal sepal with a white margin.   18 P. helenae
+ Leaves neither rigid nor leathery-succulent, usually (8-)10-40 cm; synsepal ovate to elliptic; flowers not as above   (17)
17 (16) Flower with 3 irregular longitudinal maroon bars on dorsal sepal and 2 similar bars on petals.   22 P. tigrinum
+ Flower without maroon bars as above   (18)
18 (17) Dorsal sepal white with a maroon midvein; staminode convolute on basal margin and appearing like a pair of eyes.   23 P. spicerianum
+ Dorsal sepal not colored as above; staminode without convolute basal margin as above   (19)
19 (18) Plants with a long and stout rhizome more than 8 × 1 cm.   16 P. areeanum
+ Plants lacking a long rhizome as above   (20)
20 (19) Staminode subsquare, with a glossy convex center, lacking a distinct umbo; petals with dense blackish maroon speckles in basal half; lip ± puberulent on outer surface.   12 P. hirsutissimum
+ Staminode obovate, with a distinct umbo centrally; petals without spots or with purple to dark maroon spots in basal half; lip glabrous on outer surface   (21)
21 (20) Dorsal sepal very broad, 4.6-6.7 cm wide, pinkish to white, usually with reddish veins; staminode white.   13 P. charlesworthii
+ Dorsal sepal less than 4.5 cm wide, not colored as above; staminode not white   (22)
22 (21) Leaves 8-19 × 0.7-1.8 cm; petals 3-4 cm   (23)
+ Leaves (15-)20-40 × 2-4 cm; petals 5-6 cm   (25)
23 (22) Dorsal sepal and petals with large maroon spots; petals 14-18 mm wide.   19 P. henryanum
+ Dorsal sepal and petals without large maroon spots; petals 7-10 mm wide   (24)
24 (23) Petals undulate at margin; staminode with a yellow umbo in central or upper part.   15 P. barbigerum
+ Petals strongly undulate at margin; staminode with a green umbo in lower part.   17 P. tranlienianum
25 (22) Petals 1.5-2 cm wide, with same color on both sides of midvein, apical half slightly broader than or nearly as broad as basal half; dorsal sepal finely spotted with black.   14 P. insigne
+ Petals 2-4.5 cm wide, with different color on each side of midvein, apical half more than 2 × as broad as basal half; dorsal sepal unspotted or somewhat confluent-spotted with blackish maroon   (26)
26 (25) Peduncle shortly hairy; dorsal sepal white, often tinged with pale green or pale yellow toward its base; petals 2-2.5 cm wide.   20 P. gratrixianum
+ Peduncle long hairy; dorsal sepal pale green to pale yellow, central area deep maroon and deeper striped; petals 2.2-4.5 cm wide.   21 P. villosum

  • List of lower taxa


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