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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 2-3 | Thelypteridaceae

3. Parathelypteris (H. Itô) Ching, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 8: 300. 1963.

金星蕨属 jin xing jue shu

Authors: Youxing Lin & Kunio Iwatsuki

Thelypteris sect. Parathelypteris H. Itô in Nakai & Honda, Nov. Fl. Jap. 4: 127. 1939; Coryphopteris Holttum; Wagneriopteris A. Löve & D. Löve.

Plants small to medium-sized, terrestrial plants, rarely in marshes or meadows. Rhizomes long creeping or short and decumbent, ascending or erect, glabrous or with scales or rusty yellow hairs. Fronds remote, approximate, or clustered; stipes stramineous or castaneous, ± polished, bases sometimes nearly black and glabrous or with spreading, grayish white, multicellular acicular hairs, distally glabrous or pubescent; laminae ovate-oblong, oblong-lanceolate, or lanceolate, tapering or not tapering to bases, pinnate-pinnatifid, acuminate and pinnatifid at apices; lateral pinnae mostly narrowly lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, bases symmetrical, truncate or broadly cuneate, not adnate to rachises, sessile or occasionally shortly stalked, apices acuminate; proximal pinnae not shortened or 1 to several pairs of pinnae obviously shortened, even reduced to small auricles, pinnatifid; segments mostly oblong, rectangular, or subsquare, margins entire or ± serrate, apices rounded-obtuse, sometimes pointed or with sinuslike angles. Veinlets pinnate, free, simple and all reaching margins. Laminae herbaceous or papery, when dry yellowish green, sometimes brownish green or nearly black, both surfaces ± with pubescent or acicular hairs, rarely glabrous when dry, sometimes with orange-yellow or reddish purple glands abaxially; costae grooved adaxially, densely covered with short setae, rounded and raised abaxially and usually ± with acicular hairs, rarely glabrous. Sori orbicular, medium-sized, dorsifixed at middle or near ends of veinlets, located between main veins and margins or slightly closer to margins; indusia larger, orbicular-reniform, sometimes horseshoe-shaped, when dry brown, membranous, glabrous or hairy, usually persistent. Spores bilateral, orbicular-reniform, perispores thin and transparent, corrugate, ± finely reticulate on surfaces. x = 8, 9, 31.

About 60 species: tropical and subtropical regions of E Asia, SE Asia to Pacific islands; 24 species (11 endemic) in China.

Parathelypteris is very similar to Metathelypteris in shape, but it differs by the costae grooved adaxially; the veinlets usually simple, not forked, and reaching margins; and the indusia larger and readily discerned.

The following taxa are excluded from the present treatment, pending further research: Parathelypteris auriculata H. G. Zhou & H. Li (Acta Bot. Yunnan. 14: 33. 1992), described from Guangxi (Wuming), and P. jinfoshanensis Ching & Z. Y Liu (Bull. Bot. Res., Harbin 4(3): 18. 1984), described from Sichuan (Nanchuan).

1 Stipes stramineous, glabrous or sparsely shortly hairy near bases; sori usually attached near ends of veinlets and close to margins   (2)
+ Stipes in part or whole (usually up to rachis) castaneous or castaneous-brown, rarely stramineous, bases glabrous or with spreading grayish white acicular hairs; sori usually dorsifixed on middle of veinlets, located between costa and margins   (12)
2 (1) Several pairs of pinnae on proximal part of lamina clearly shortened   (3)
+ Proximal pinnae not shortened or slightly shortened   (7)
3 (2) Plants short and small, usually no more than 40 cm; rhizomes long creeping; middle pinnae no more than 3.5 cm; pinnae with more multicellular (usually 3-7 cells) acicular hairs abaxially along costae.   1 P. beddomei
+ Plants more than 40 cm tall; rhizomes stronger, creeping or ascending; middle pinnae usually over 4 cm; pinnae usually with unicellular acicular hairs abaxially along costae, sometimes with 2- or 3-celled hairs   (4)
4 (3) Pinnae 3 or 4 pairs on proximal part of lamina gradually shortened, proximal pair of pinnae 1-2 cm, not auriculate.   2 P. changbaishanensis
+ Pinnae 5-8 pairs on proximal part of lamina gradually shortened, proximal pair of pinnae reduced to small auricles or lacking   (5)
5 (4) Laminae without glands or occasionally with few orange-yellow spherical glands abaxially; rhizomes long creeping, subglabrous.   3 P. nipponica
+ Laminae with more orange-yellow spherical glands abaxially; rhizomes ascending or creeping, densely rusty yellow pubescent   (6)
6 (5) Rhizomes ascending; rachises with glaucous fine acicular hairs abaxially; indusia with dense setae.   4 P. qinlingensis
+ Rhizomes long creeping, densely rusty yellow hairy; rachises subentire abaxially; indusia glabrous or occasionally with 1 or 2 setae.   5 P. borealis
7 (2) Plants usually not more than 20 cm tall; middle pinnae 1.5-2 ?4-8 cm; segments 2-5 pairs; indusia horseshoe-shaped   (8)
+ Plants 25-60 cm tall, or 2-3 m tall   (9)
8 (7) Pinnae subglabrous abaxially, nearly without glands; indusia larger and subglabrous, occasionally with few grayish white setae.   6 P. cystopteroides
+ Costae and costules abaxially with sparse grayish white fine acicular hairs and orange- yellow orbicular glands; indusia small and with more setae.   7 P. grammitoides
9 (7) Plants 2-3 m tall; lateral pinnae 25-30 ?2-2.5 cm; segments 60-70 pairs per pinna; pinna glands confined to veinlets.   11 P. subimmersa
+ Plants 25-60 cm tall; middle pinnae 2-6 ?ca. 1 cm; segments 6-20 pairs; pinnae glands scattered abaxially   (10)
10 (9) Costae glabrous abaxially; segments of fertile fronds crenate along margins.   8 P. serrutula
+ Costae ?with acicular hairs; segments of fertile fronds entire along margins   (11)
11 (10) Middle pinnae 2-3 cm, acute at apices; segments 6-10 pairs; proximal several pairs of pinnae minutely shortened; costae with only few acicular hairs abaxially.   9 P. angustifrons
+ Middle pinnae ca. 4.5 cm, acuminate at apices; segments more than 15 pairs; proximal pinnae not shortened; costae with more acicular hairs abaxially.   10 P. glanduligera
12 (1) Laminae without reddish purple spherical glands abaxially   (13)
+ Pinnae with reddish purple spherical large glands abaxially   (17)
13 (12) Stipes with dense unicellular grayish white short acicular hairs; lamina with similar dense hairs on both surfaces.   20 P. castanea
+ Stipes with spreading multicellular acicular long hairs at bases   (14)
14 (13) Segments 2-4 sinuslike angular at apices   (15)
+ Segments not sinuslike angular at apices   (16)
15 (14) Rhizomes short and erect; bases of stipes mixed with few spreading multicellular long acicular hairs and, including above bases, with grayish white unicellular short setae; indusia sparsely pubescent.   21 P. pauciloba
+ Rhizomes short, decumbent or ascending; stipes with dense spreading multicellular acicular long hairs, distally subglabrous; indusia densely shortly setaceous.   22 P. angulariloba
16 (14) Laminae dark green or nearly black when dry; pinnae abaxially densely pubescent along costae, veins and interval sparsely shortly hairy; indusia glabrous or occasionally very sparsely pubescent when dry.   23 P. nigrescens
+ Laminae grayish green when dry; pinnae with dense multicellular beardlike long acicular hairs; indusia densely pubescent.   24 P. indochinensis
17 (12) Stipes glabrous at bases   (18)
+ Stipes with spreading 2- or 3-celled grayish white acicular hairs at bases   (19)
18 (17) Laminae lanceolate; middle pinnae narrower, 0.8-1.2 cm wide, glabrous or occasionally very sparsely grayish white pubescent abaxially; indusia glabrous or with sparse short hairs; stipes castaneous-brown, never stramineous.   18 P. chinensis
+ Laminae ovate-oblong; middle pinnae 1.3-1.6 cm wide, usually grayish white pubescent abaxially, rarely glabrous; stipes usually coetaneous, occasionally stramineous.   19 P. japonica
19 (17) Laminae abaxially with long acicular hairs along costae   (20)
+ Laminae with short hairs or subglabrous abaxially along rachises   (22)
20 (19) Rachises usually hairy abaxially; lateral pinnae 12-15 pairs; segments ?angular at apices, 3-6 veinlets per segment; laminae with reddish purple glands abaxially   12 P. chingii
+ Rachises usually glabrous abaxially, lateral pinnae 18-30 pairs; segments rounded-obtuse or rounded-truncate at apices and not angular, 7 or 8 pairs of veinlets per segment; laminae with denser reddish purple glands abaxially   (21)
21 (20) Indusia with dense grayish white acicular long hairs.   13 P. petelotii
+ Indusia glabrous or occasionally with few short setae.   14 P. hirsutipes
22 (19) Laminae glabrous or with few short acicular hairs abaxially; indusia glabrous or occasionally with short setae.   15 P. caudata
+ Laminae with dense short acicular hairs abaxially; indusia hairy also   (23)
23 (22) Indusia large, close to each other, densely shortly setaceous.   16 P. trichochlamys
+ Indusia medium-sized, separate from each other, sparsely pubescent.   17 P. caoshanensis

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