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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 25 | Orchidaceae

176. Phalaenopsis Blume, Bijdr. 294. 1825.

蝴蝶兰属 hu die lan shu

Authors: Xinqi Chen & Jeffrey J. Wood

Kingidium P. F. Hunt; Kingiella Rolfe; Polychilos Breda.

Herbs, terrestrial, lithophytic, and epiphytic, monopodial. Stems short, leafy, concealed by overlapping persistent leaf sheaths, rooting at base. Leaves persistent or sometimes deciduous, alternate, distichous, oblong to broadly elliptic, sometimes marbled or suffused with purple or silver, succulent. Inflorescences erect to laxly pendulous, axillary pedunculate racemes or panicles; peduncle terete; rachis terete or bilaterally compressed, rarely swollen relative to peduncle; floral bracts persistent, inconspicuous, succulent or papery. Flowers often fragrant, few to many, resupinate, produced simultaneously or in succession over time, often long-lasting, inconspicuous to showy, plain or variously spotted, marbled, or barred, membranous to thickly fleshy. Pedicel and ovary terete, slender, shallowly 6-sulcate. Sepals and petals free, spreading, subsimilar to dimorphic, lateral sepals usually oblique and larger than dorsal sepal. Lip 3-lobed, clawed, continuous with foot, sometimes saccate or subsaccate; lateral lobes erect and subparallel, often callose; mid-lobe oblong-elliptic to obtrullate, rarely transverse, apex sometimes with a pair of tendril-like appendages (cirri), sometimes pubescent to villous, callus uni-, bi-, or triseriate, longitudinal, rarely transverse; column stout, often subtended by a pair of fleshy kneelike protrusions, without wings, with a foot, usually dilated lateral to stigma. Pollinia 2 or 4, on a common spatulate stipe and viscidium. Capsule pedicellate.

Between 40 and 45 species: from India to S China, Thailand, Indochina, Malaysia, and Indonesia to the Philippines and New Guinea, the majority in Indonesia and the Philippines; 12 species (four endemic) in China.

The genus Phalaenopsis has been monographed by Christenson (Phalaenopsis Monogr. 2001).

Phalaenopsis decumbens (Griffith) Holttum (Bull. Gard. Singapore 11: 286. 1947; Aerides decumbens Griffith, Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 365. 1851), described from Myanmar, has been noted from Hainan (Press et al., Annot. Checkl. Fl. Pl. Nepal, 223. 2000). However, the present authors found no relevant specimens and therefore could not substantiate the occurrence of this species in China.

1 Roots strongly flattened; leaves deciduous; inflorescences few flowered; floral bracts small, scarious; lateral lobes of lip with flaplike flanges; callus biseriate; pollinia 4, on a spatulate stipe (P. subg. Aphyllae (H. R. Sweet) Christenson)   (2)
+ Not with above combination of characters   (7)
2 (1) Spur prominent, a continuation of angle formed by junction of lip mid-lobe and lateral lobes   (3)
+ Spur not prominent, apparently absent or forming a small nipple-shaped structure beneath posterior callus   (4)
3 (2) Dorsal sepal 8-9 mm; flowers pink; column stout, broadly dilated at stigma; lip mid-lobe flat.   1 P. taenialis
+ Dorsal sepal 12-15 mm; flowers green or green suffused with bronze; column cylindric, not dilated at stigma; lip mid-lobe convex.   2 P. braceana
4 (2) Lip mid-lobe obcordate with a central apical fleshy knob.   3 P. wilsonii
+ Lip mid-lobe not obcordate, without a terminal notch   (5)
5 (4) Flowers deep green; lip mid-lobe oblanceolate, without any conspicuous constriction.   4 P. stobartiana
+ Flowers rose-pink; lip mid-lobe with a conspicuous constriction   (6)
6 (5) Lip mid-lobe flared below apex producing a 3-lobulate mid-lobe; flowers pink.   5 P. hainanensis
+ Lip mid-lobe widest below apex, apical margin reflexed along midvein, forming a subtubular apex that may appear emarginate in natural position; flowers pink or pale green.   6 P. honghenensis
7 (1) Leaves deciduous or evergreen; pollinia 4; lip mid-lobe mobile; lip lateral lobes erect, subparallel, diverging in middle to form a U-shaped compound structure; column with prominent swellings at base (P. subg. Parishianae (H. R. Sweet) Christenson)   (8)
+ Not with above combination of characters   (9)
8 (7) Lip mid-lobe white and orange or orange-yellow, broadly triangular, 4-5 mm, 3-lobulate; basal callus deeply forked, with a crested crescent-shaped appendage in middle, each arm of callus dividing into 2 filiform-linear antennae to 3 mm.   7 P. malipoensis
+ Lip mid-lobe white with 2 broad longitudinal chestnut-brown stripes, reniform or subtriangular, 9-11 mm, rounded-obtuse; basal callus of 4 filiform appendages superposed over a semicircular, ± reniform callus with minutely irregularly subdenticulate margins.   8 P. lobbii
9 (7) Lip mid-lobe anchor-shaped; lateral lobes of lip producing a raised tooth along leading edge; flowers produced simultaneously; petals conspicuously narrower than sepals; callus triseriate; sepals and petals pale yellow with dark brown spots and bars; lip slightly saccate at base created by folding (P. subg. Polychilos (Breda) Christenson).   9 P. mannii
+ Lip mid-lobe not as above; lateral lobes of lip smooth, lacking a toothlike ridge; callus solitary; flowers essentially unmarked, white or pink (P. subg. Phalaenopsis)   (10)
10 (9) Petals much broader than sepals; flowers white, callus variably marked with yellow and red; mid-lobe of lip subrhombic, with 2 long apical tails (cirri); callus solitary, erect, upper edge terminating in 2 pairs of subparallel teeth.   10 P. aphrodite
+ Petals and sepals subsimilar; other characters not as above combination   (11)
11 (10) Lateral lobes of lip with toothlike flaps, obliquely elliptic-obovate, spreading; callus uniseriate, longitudinal, bifid; flowers produced sequentially over long periods.   11 P. deliciosa
+ Lateral lobes of lip without toothlike flaps, oblong-oblanceolate, erect-incurved; callus uniseriate, peltate, quadrangular, apex truncate; flowers all opening simultaneously.   12 P. equestris

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