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FOC | Family List | FOC Vol. 25 | Orchidaceae

113. Pholidota Lindley ex Hooker, Exot. Fl. 2: ad t. 138. 1825.

石仙桃属 shi xian tao shu

Authors: Xinqi Chen & Jeffrey J. Wood

Herbs, epiphytic or lithophytic, pendulous or erect. Pseudobulbs contiguous or well spaced on creeping rhizomes, ovoid to subcylindric, rarely connected to each other at both ends and stemlike or each connected at base by a short rhizome to middle part of another pseudobulb, apex 1- or 2-leaved. Leaves narrowly elliptic, ovate, or oblong, leathery, shortly petiolate. Inflorescence terminal, emerging from apex of pseudobulb, distichous, pendulous, slender, racemose, laxly or densely many flowered; rachis often slightly flexuose; floral bracts persistent or deciduous, distichous, large, concave. Flowers resupinate, often not opening widely, white, small, fleshy. Dorsal sepal concave or convex, broadly ovate to elliptic; lateral sepals ovate to ovate-oblong, concave or convex, often carinate. Petals ovate to linear, often smaller than sepals; lip sessile, with a saccate basal hypochile and subentire or 3- or 4-lobed; epichile deflexed; disk sometimes with thick veins or lamellae. Column short, upper part winged or hooded, foot absent; anther incumbent; pollinia 4, waxy, subequal in size, in 2 pairs, connected by inconspicuous caudicles to sticky material; rostellum rather large. Capsule relatively small, often ribbed.

Thirty species: mainland and SE Asia, Australia, New Guinea, and the Pacific islands; 12 species (two endemic) in China.

The genus Pholidota was monographed by de Vogel (Orchid Monogr. 3. 1988).

The following species were described or recorded from China but could not be treated here because no specimens were seen by the present authors:

Pholidota niana Y. T. Liu, R. Li & C. L. Long (Ann. Bot. Fenn. 39: 227. 2002), described from SE Yunnan (Xichou, 1300-1400 m).

Pholidota recurva Lindley (Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl. 37. 1830), recorded from S Yunnan (Mengla, ca. 1500 m) by X. H. Jin, H. Li and D. Z. Li (Acta Bot. Yunnan. 29: 394. 2007).

1 Each new young shoot developing from near apex of last developed pseudobulb: stems consisting of superposed pseudobulbs (P. sect. Articulatae (H. G. Reichenbach) Pfitzer).   1 P. articulata
+ Each new young shoot sprouting from base of a pseudobulb (usually last developed one): pseudobulbs arranged along a usually short to very short rhizome   (2)
2 (1) Rhizome pendulous, only at base attached to substratum by roots; aerial roots often present on pendulous part of rhizome; pseudobulbs turned to all sides of rhizome; inflorescences generally hysteranthous, each borne on a shoot not developing into a leaf-bearing pseudobulb after anthesis (P. sect. Crinonia (Blume) Butzin).   2 P. protracta
+ Rhizome creeping, along most of its length attached to substratum by roots; aerial roots absent; pseudobulbs turned to one side of rhizome; inflorescences synanthous or proteranthous   (3)
3 (2) Pseudobulbs 1-leaved (P. sect. Pholidota)   (4)
+ Pseudobulbs 2-leaved   (5)
4 (3) Mature leaves thick, leathery; floral bracts with numerous dense fine veins; lateral sepals free at base.   3 P. imbricata
+ Mature leaves thin, herbaceous; floral bracts with less than 25 relatively coarse veins; lateral sepals connate at base.   4 P. pallida
5 (3) Pseudobulbs crowded to ca. 2.5 cm apart on rhizome; floral bracts persistent at anthesis (caducous in P. leveilleana); keels on lip hypochile absent or low and swollen; keels on epichile, if present, at most 2 (P. sect. Chinenses (H. G. Reichenbach) de Vogel)   (6)
+ Pseudobulbs rather widely spaced along rhizome; floral bracts caducous at anthesis, usually falling off but sometimes remaining clasped around flower; base of lip hypochile smooth (P. sect. Repentes de Vogel)   (9)
6 (5) Petals ca. equally wide as or only slightly narrower than dorsal sepal   (7)
+ Petals less than 1/2 as wide as dorsal sepal (see note under P. chinensis)   (8)
7 (6) Floral bracts persistent during anthesis; pseudobulbs very slender, fusiform; petals more than 7.5 mm.   5 P. roseans
+ Floral bracts caducous at anthesis; pseudobulbs swollen, ovoid; petals less than 5.5 mm.   6 P. leveilleana
8 (6) Pseudobulbs usually 1.6-8 × 0.5-2.3 cm, narrowly ovoid-oblong, contracted into a short stalk at base; lip hypochile with 3 basal swollen veins, epichile usually unornamented; leaves ± turning black when dry.   7 P. chinensis
+ Pseudobulbs 4-11.5 × 0.3-0.4 cm, subcylindric, not narrowed into a short stalk at base; lip hypochile with 2 basal lamellae, epichile 3-ridged; leaves not turning black when dry.   8 P. longipes
9 (5) Lip almost entirely saccate, with a small lateral depression on each side at base; epichile very small   (10)
+ Lip consisting of a broad saccate hypochile without lateral depressions and a broad epichile suborbicular in outline when flattened   (11)
10 (9) Plants sturdy; flowers opening widely; hypochile with 3 keels at back which are fused at base; column apical hood relatively large, with a rounded top; anther cap inserted ca. halfway between stigma and hood margin; epichile consisting of 2 small lobes that are bent over front opening of hypochile, rarely lobes reduced or absent.   9 P. convallariae
+ Plants rather small; flowers not opening widely; keels absent; column apical hood abruptly truncate; anther cap inserted on top margin; epichile consisting of a triangular to narrowly triangular concave point.   10 P. cantonensis
11 (9) Roots rather sturdy, "woody," stiff, 1.5-2 mm in diam.; epichile abruptly recurved giving lip a distinctly sigmoid appearance, ecallose, 2.8-4 mm.   11 P. yunnanensis
+ Roots rather slender and flexuous, herbaceous, 0.5-1 mm in diam.; lip not distinctly curved; hypochile with 3 short keels at back; epichile 1-2 mm.   12 P. missionariorum

  • List of lower taxa


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