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9. Premna Linnaeus, Mant. Pl. 154. 1771.
[nom. cons.]

豆腐柴属 dou fu chai shu

Pygmaeopremna Merrill.

Trees, shrubs, or subshrubs, erect or rarely climbing. Branches usually terete, usually with round or elliptic yellowish glandular lenticels. Leaves simple, opposite, margin entire or 3-5-crenate. Inflorescences terminal trichotomous panicles, leaf opposed cymes, clusters, paniculate corymbs, or spikelike thyrses. Flowers small. Calyx ± cup-shaped or campanulate, truncate, sinuately dentate, or rarely long dentate, teeth equal or clearly 2-lipped. Corolla with a short tube; lobes 4 or obscurely 5, spreading, subequal to clearly 2-lipped. Stamens 4, often didynamous, shorter than corolla or sometimes slightly exserted. Ovary (2- or) 4-locular; ovules 1 (or 2) per locule, pendulous or laterally attached. Style capillary; stigma 2-cleft. Fruit a small drupe, usually with a 4-locular pyrene.

About 200 species: Old World tropics and subtropics, 46 species in China.


1 Suffrutescent herbs with a woody rhizome; ovary 2-locular   46 Premna herbacea
+ Trees or shrubs; ovary 4-locular.   (2)
       
2 (1) Inflorescences spikelike or racemelike thyrses; calyx lips entire or upper lip slightly emarginate.   (3)
+ Inflorescences compound cymes; calyx not 2-lipped or if 2-lipped then lips dentate or lobed.   (5)
       
3 (2) Inflorescences racemelike thyrses with pedunculate cymes   43 Premna racemosa
+ Inflorescences spikelike thyrses with sessile cymes.   (4)
       
4 (3) Shrubs; leaf blade papery; bracts ca. 10 mm   44 Premna interrupta
+ Trees; leaf blade subleathery; bracts ca. 5 mm   45 Premna bracteata
       
5 (2) Calyx 4-dentate or subtruncate, not indistinctly 2-lipped.   (6)
+ Calyx 5-dentate, 5-lobed, or distinctly 2-lipped.   (10)
       
6 (5) Leaf blade leathery or thickly papery, both surfaces glabrous.   (7)
+ Leaf blade papery or submembranous, pubescent.   (8)
       
7 (6) Erect trees or shrubs; leaf blade thickly papery, veins elevated on both surfaces   37 Premna scoriarum
+ Plants climbing; leaf blade leathery, veins abaxially obscure or only slightly distinct   38 Premna scandens
       
8 (6) Branches gray-yellow; leaf blade base rounded or truncate   34 Premna fohaiensis
+ Branches brown to black-brown; leaf blade base cuneate to subrounded.   (9)
       
9 (8) Leaf blade broadly ovate to ovate-lanceolate, papery   35 Premna szemaoensis
+ Leaf blade narrowly elliptic to elliptic, submembranous   36 Premna paisehensis
       
10 (5) Calyx distinctly 2-lipped.   (11)
+ Calyx not 2-lipped, actinomorphic (calyx nearly 2-lipped in P. confinis).   (15)
       
11 (10) Calyx lower lip emarginate, upper lip with 3 minute emergences   42 Premna laevigata
+ Calyx lower lip subentire to shortly 3-lobed, upper lip emarginate or 2-dentate.   (12)
       
12 (11) Calyx 4-5 mm.   (13)
+ Calyx 1.5-3 mm.   (14)
       
13 (12) Base of leaf blade cuneate to decurrent   8 Premna confinis
+ Base of leaf blade rounded to somewhat cordate   39 Premna odorata
       
14 (12) Lower lip of calyx subentire to slightly 2-dentate; corolla yellow or white   41 Premna hainanensis
+ Lower lip of calyx subentire to 3-dentate; corolla greenish yellow   40 Premna serratifolia
       
15 (10) Cymes in a lax conical panicle.   (16)
+ Cymes in a lax flat-topped corymb or dense capitulum.   (24)
       
16 (15) Branchlets, leaves, and petioles with stellate hairs   1 Premna pyramidata
+ Branchlets, leaves, and petioles without stellate hairs.   (17)
       
17 (16) Leaf blade base narrow cuneate or decurrent.   (18)
+ Leaf blade base cuneate or subcordate.   (20)
       
18 (17) Evergreen; leaf blade leathery, adaxially dark yellow glandular; calyx nearly 2-lipped   8 Premna confinis
+ Deciduous; leaf blade papery, adaxially without glands; calyx equally 5-dentate.   (19)
       
19 (18) Leaf blade margin serrate or entire; corolla ca. 7-9 mm   3 Premna microphylla
+ Leaf blade margin entire or 3-5-crenate; corolla 3-5 mm   4 Premna ligustroides
       
20 (17) Inflorescence branches not scorpioid; flowers usually persistent.   (21)
+ Inflorescence branches often scorpioid; flowers usually deciduous but pedicel usually persistent.   (22)
       
21 (20) Leaf blade pubescent, without glands or with minute inconspicuous glands; branchlets horizontal   2 Premna puberula
+ Leaf blade subglabrous on both surfaces, abaxially brownish red glandular; branches ascending   5 Premna sunyiensis
       
22 (20) Shrubs, usually climbing; panicles 2-5 cm wide   9 Premna fordii
+ Shrubs or trees, usually erect; panicles 8-15 cm wide.   (23)
       
23 (22) Leaf blade 9-15 5-9 cm; petiole 2-5 cm; branchlets puberulent when young; panicles always conical   6 Premna cavaleriei
+ Leaf blade 5-9 3-4 cm; petiole (0.1-)0.2-0.3 cm; branchlets tomentellous when young; panicles often rounded   7 Premna chevalieri
       
24 (15) Cymes in a lax flat-topped corymb.   (25)
+ Cymes in a dense capitulum.   (35)
       
25 (24) Leaf blade densely pubescent or pilose on 1 or both surfaces.   (26)
+ Leaf blade adaxially glabrous or subglabrous except for pubescent veins.   (30)
       
26 (25) Flowers dusty yellow   14 Premna latifolia
+ Flowers white to greenish or yellowish green.   (27)
       
27 (26) Leaf pairs equal   18 Premna tapintzeana
+ Leaf pairs unequal.   (28)
       
28 (27) Leaves, branchlets, and petioles densely villous   16 Premna fulva
+ Leaves, branchlets, and petioles pilose.   (29)
       
29 (28) Branchlets with white lenticels; inflorescences 6-17 cm across; stamens didynamous, exserted   15 Premna flavescens
+ Branchlets with yellow lenticels; inflorescences less than 6 cm across; stamens subequal, included   19 Premna crassa
       
30 (25) Leaf blade leathery   12 Premna maclurei
+ Leaf blade papery or membranous.   (31)
       
31 (30) Leaf blade membranous, abaxially sparsely white or yellow glandular; stamens subequal; ovary apex white glandular   17 Premna straminicaulis
+ Leaf blade papery, abaxially without glands; stamens didynamous; ovary glabrous, without glands.   (32)
       
32 (31) Erect shrubs or trees; leaves black when dry.   (33)
+ Climbing shrubs; leaves dark green, brownish, or dark brown when dry.   (34)
       
33 (32) Leaf blade 3-4(-5) cm wide; panicles to 25 cm   7 Premna chevalieri
+ Leaf blade 5-6 cm wide; panicles 3-7 cm   13 Premna octonervia
       
34 (32) Leaf blade ovate, oblong, or rarely obovate, dark green or brownish when dry; bracts lanceolate   11 Premna puerensis
+ Leaf blade broadly ovate to elliptic, dark brown when dry; bracts awl-shaped   10 Premna subscandens
       
35 (24) Leaf blade and calyx red, purple-red, or orange glandular.   (36)
+ Leaf blade and calyx yellow glandular.   (39)
       
36 (35) Leaf blade and calyx red or purple-red glandular; calyx lobes less than half the calyx.   (37)
+ Leaf blade and calyx orange glandular; calyx lobes more than half the calyx.   (38)
       
37 (36) Leaf blade purple-red glandular on both surfaces; corolla violet to pinkish, 4.5-5 mm   20 Premna glandulosa
+ Leaf blade deep red glandular abaxially; corolla nearly orange, ca. 6 mm   21 Premna henryana
       
38 (36) Calyx teeth linear-lanceolate; ovary pilose, apically white glandular; leaf blade 1.5 cm wide   22 Premna punicea
+ Calyx teeth narrowly triangular; ovary glabrous, without glands; leaf blade 2-4 cm wide   23 Premna rubroglandulosa
       
39 (35) Corolla white, yellow, to greenish.   (40)
+ Corolla pinkish, purple, rose, or rose red.   (43)
       
40 (39) Leaf blade cordate   31 Premna velutina
+ Leaf blade ovate-lanceolate, to rounded.   (41)
       
41 (40) Corolla tube glabrous outside; ovary glabrous   29 Premna mekongensis
+ Corolla tube pubescent outside; ovary pubescent.   (42)
       
42 (41) Leaf blade broadly ovate to rounded; petiole ca. 3 mm   32 Premna tenii
+ Leaf blade ovate to ovate-oblong; petiole 4-10 mm   33 Premna subcapitata
       
43 (39) Leaf blade abaxially densely pubescent   30 Premna yunnanensis
+ Leaf blade abaxially sparsely pubescent.   (44)
       
44 (43) Calyx equal to or shorter than fruit; corolla pinkish.   (45)
+ Calyx longer than fruit; corolla purple, rose, or rose red.   (46)
       
45 (44) Leaf blade 2-6 cm wide, ovate, base cordate; ovary glabrous; calyx shorter than fruit   24 Premna urticifolia
+ Leaf blade 0.3-1.1 cm wide, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, base cuneate to rounded; ovary sparsely pubescent; calyx as long as fruit   25 Premna parvilimba
       
46 (44) Ovary sparsely pubescent; calyx teeth linear to linear-lanceolate   28 Premna acutata
+ Ovary glabrous; calyx teeth lanceolate or triangular-lanceolate.   (47)
       
47 (46) Leaf blade 1.5-3.5 cm; petiole 4-5 mm; inflorescences 12-flowered   26 Premna steppicola
+ Leaf blade (2.5-)5-6 cm; petiole 1-2 mm; inflorescences 2-4(-6)-flowered   27 Premna oligantha

  • List of lower taxa


     

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  • Living Plant image: RAKOTOVAO 2023 (Roger Lala Andriamiarisoa)
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